MSK - PAIN PHYSIOLOGY Flashcards Preview

Y2 > MSK - PAIN PHYSIOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in MSK - PAIN PHYSIOLOGY Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is pain?

an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience assoc with actual tissue damage or described in terms of damage

2

processes involved in pain

transduction
transmission
modulation
perception

3

transduction

translation of noxious stimulus into electrical activity at the peripheral nociceptor

4

transmission

propagation of pain signal as nerve impulses through the nervous system

5

modulation

modification/hindering of pain transmission in the NS eg by inhibitory neurotransmitters like endogenous steroids

6

perception

conscious experience of pain
causes physiological and behavioural responses

7

what begins pain?

activation of nociceptors

8

what are nociceptors?

specific primary afferent neurones normally activated by intense noxious stimuli eg thermal, mechanical or chemical

9

how do nociceptors relay information to second order neurones?

chemical synaptic transmission

10

what are the neurotransmitters?

glutamate and peptides eg substance P and neurokinin A

11

how do second order neurones ascend the spinal cord?

the anterolateral system terminating in the thalamus

12

which tracts are involved?

spinothalamic tract
spinoreticular tract

13

what happens in the spinothalamic tract?

pain perception - location and intensity

14

what happens in the spinoreticular tract?

autonomic responses to pain, arousal, emotional responses, fear of pain

15

where does the sensory information go after the thalamus?

it is relayed by third order neurones to the primary sensory cortex

16

what are the types of nociceptors?

Adelta fibres
C fibres

17

both types of nociceptors are myelinated. true/false

false
only adelta fibres are (thinly myelinated)

18

what do adelta fibres mediate?

first or fast pain eg lancinating, stabbing, pricking sensations

19

what do c fibres mediate?

second or slow pain eg burning, throbbing, aching sensations

20

what are the classifications of mechanisms of pain?

nociceptive
inflammatory
pathological

21

what is nociceptive pain and when is it provoked?

normal response to injury of tissues by damaging stimuli
only provoked by intense stimulation

22

what is special about nociceptive and inflammatory pain?

adaptive
n- healing -> pain goes away)
I - promotes repair until healing occurs

23

what causes inflammatory pain?

activation of the immune system by tissue injury or infection

24

what activates the pain in inflammatory?

mediators released at the site of inflammation by leucocytes, vascular endothelium and tissue resident mast cells

25

what is hyperalgesia (caused by inflammatory pain)?

heightened pain sensitivity to noxious stimuli

26

what is allodynia (caused by inflammatory pain)?

pain sensitivity to innocuous stimuli

27

when is pain pathological?

when simple analgesics are no longer effective

28

what is pathological pain treated with?

antidepressants and anti epileptics

29

what are the two types of pathological pain?

dysfunctional and neuropathic

30

what is dysfunctional pain?

when there is no identifiable damage or inflammation