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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (57):
1

CNS

brain + spinal cord

2

PNS

nerves and nerve structures outside of CNS

3

foramen magnum

inferior end of brain
brain stem ends
spinal cord begins

4

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies located outside CNS

5

motor ganglia

receive input from other motor neurons, cell bodies located w/i CNS

6

sensory ganglia (pseudounipolar)

collection of neuron cell bodies that have a single T shaped process that convey sensory stimuli directly into CNS

7

Nerves

bundles of nerve cell processes
transmit information to and from CNS

8

3 classes of nerves

spinal (spinal cord)
cranial (brain stem)
splanchnic (peripherial nerves)

9

Splanchnic nerves

innervate thoracic, ab, pelvic viscera
carry either but not both sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions

10

plexus

aggregation of nerves or nerve fibers from different origins that intermingle for reassortment

11

functionally the nervous system can be subdivided into

somatic and autonomic

12

Neurons have 3 basic parts

cell body
axons
dendrites

13

cell body contains

nucleus, perikaryon

14

centrally located nucleus is usually

large and euchromatic
has a prominent nucleolus

15

perikaryon contains

cytoplasm
and cytoplasmic organelles

16

neurolemma

neuron cell body

17

golgi

package neurosecretory granules

18

cytoskeleton of neurons consist of

neurotubules, neurofilaments, actin microfilaments

19

Nissl substance

unique to neurons are dense aggregations of stacks of RER with intervening polysomes

20

Nissl substance located

present in perikaryon and proximal portions of dendrites but absent from axons

21

Chromatolysis

neuronal injury
stacks of RER dissociate resulting in visible loss of Nissl
nucleus migrates to peripheral location in the perikaryon

22

3 basic morphological types of neurons in cortex

pyramidal cells
granule cells
fusiform cells

23

pyramidal cell

multipolar neuron
pyramidal shaped cell body
single apical dendrite
several horizontal basal dendrites

24

largest pyramidal cell

giant pyramidal cells of Betz

25

Pyramidal cells of cortex produce

excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate

26

Axons of pyramidal cells represent

principle cortical output to areas outside the cortex

27

granule cells

small
multipoloar
short axons that mostly remain in cortex
mostly represent interneurons

28

Granule cells of cortex produce

inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA

29

Somatic division

voluntary motor activity
somatomotor
general sensory afferent (GSA)
general sensory efferent (GSE)
found in both spinal and cranial nerves

30

cell bodies of motor neurons are located in

ventral horns of spinal cord gray matter
brainstem motor nucleus associated with a cranial nerve

31

nucleus

collection of neuron cell bodies w/i CNS

32

Somatic neuron axons synapse

directly with skeletal muscle targets

33

neurotransmitter for GSE

Acetylcholine

34

sensory neuron cell bodies are located in

dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves
sensory ganglia associated w/ CN 5,7,9,10

35

Autonomic division

involuntary motor activity
sensory information to smooth muscle, eye, thoracic, ab viscera, skin, blood vessels, glands

36

2 systems of ANS

sympathetic and parasympathetic

37

sympathetic stimulates

flight or fight
stimualte vasodilation
pupillary dilation
bronchodilation
increased HR and respiratory rate
visceral vasoconstriction

38

sympathetic nervous system exits from

thoracic and lumbar spinal cord
T1-L2
thoracolumbar division of ANS

39

cell bodies of sympathetic general visceral afferent (GVA) are located in

DRG

40

cell bodies of general visceral efferent (GVE) pre ganglion neurons are located in

spinal cord of thoracic and lumbar

41

cell bodies of general visceral efferent (GVE) post ganglionic neurons are located in

paravertebral sympathetic chain ganglia of sympathetic trunk
located along lateral aspect of spinal cord

42

postganglionic axons synapse with

target smooth muscle that is located distant form postganglionic cell bodies

43

sympathetic neurons are

short preganglionic axons and long postganglionic axons
except for sympathetic splanchnic nerves

44

Neurotransmitter for preganglion neurons is

ACh

45

Neurotransmitter for Postganglion neurons

norepinphrine
excpetion ACh for seat glands

46

Parasymapthetic division

Craniosacarl division
maintains normal homeostasis of cardiac, rest, digestive, reflex

47

Parasympathetic leaves from

CN 3,7,9,10
S2,3,4

48

parasympathetic preganglionic GVE neurons are located in

brainstem

49

parasympathetic postganglionic GVE neurons located in

in or near target tissue

50

parasympathetic neurons are

long preganglionic
short postganglionic

51

neurotransmitter for parasympathetic

ACh

52

number of spinal nerves

31

53

spinal nerve is formed by

union of dorsal and ventral root fibers that arise form a single spinal cord segment
occurs at the intervertebral foramina

54

are parasympathetic axon fibers in spinal nerves?

NO

55

Ventral root fibers contain

somatic motor and preganglionic sympathetic motor neurons
conduction is away from spinal cord - efferent fibers

56

somatomotor neurons are located where in the spinal cord

Ventral Horn
innervate skeletal muscle fibers

57

sympathetic motor fibers

lateral horn
innervate smooth muscle associated with blood vessels and glands