Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (37)
What are the hump and bumps called?
Bump is called gyri (singular:gyrus)
Inside is called sulci (singular:sulcus)
Describing coordination of the brain
Superior is the top = dorsal
Inferior is the bottom = ventral
Anterior is the front = rostral
Posterior is the back = caudal
What is the grey matter?
Neuronal cell bodies
What is the white matter?
Neuronal cell fibres in particular the myelin sheath
Different ways to cut the brain
Axial = horizontal
Coronal = cutting between front and back
Saggital = cutting between the two different hemispheres
Where are the ventricles located?
In the cerebral hemisphere and third ventricle is located in the thalamus
Function of the ventricles
Interconnected sacs filled with cerebral spinal fluid
- Protective and acts as shock absorber
- Provides chemical stability
- Contains nutrients
The two systems in the brain
- Blood supply in order to deliver O2 and nutrients as well as to remove CO2 and waste
- Very small
What are the four main regions of the CNS
- Spinal cord
What makes up the forebrain
Cortex, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, corpus callosum, hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus
What is the cortex?
Outer layer of the brain
What is the occipital lobe?
Responsible for visual processing e.g. colour, orientation and motion
What disease affects occipital lobe?
Schizophrenia which results in hallucination due to too much activity in this region
What is the parietal lobe?
Responsible for sensory processing and proprioception causing awareness of your limbs, space and location
What disease affects parietal lobe?
- Alzheimer's disease
- Struggle with locating themself in space and movement
What is the frontal lobe?
Responsible for personality traits
- Emotions, consciousness, deliberate movement, attention and decision making
What disease affects frontal lobe?
- Personality disorders and cognitive disorders
- Prefrontal lobotomy is when you cut off the front of the brain
- Results in impaired voluntary behaviour
What is the temporal lobe?
Responsible for language and speech, auditory processing
What disease affects temporal lobe?
Compromised temporal lobe impairing verbal communication
- Stroke in language region
Results in not being able to recognise particular words or being able to say particular words
What is corpus callosum?
- Connects right and left hemispheres
- Comprised of neuron fibres allowing information to be passed between them
What does the left side of the brain control?
What does the right side of the brain control?
What is the hippocampus?`
- Responsible for memory formation and memory retrieval
What disease affects the hippocampus?
What is the basal ganglia?
Responsible for movement, balance and posture
What disease affects the basal ganglia?
- Neurodegenerative disease
- Caused by reduced dopaminergic function
- Genetic disorder
- Enlarged ventricles cause damage to basal ganglia as they are located near each other
What is the thalamus?
- Consist of over 40 different nuclei
- Most of the incoming information the the brain gets sent here to be decided where to go next
- Forming information streams
What disease affects the thalamus?
Stroke causing thalamic damage
- Results in blending of information streams
Synasthesia is when people report hearing colours or feeling sounds
What is the hypothalamus?
- Temperature regulation
What disease affects hypothalamus?
- Bipolar disorder
Effect of antidepressants on hypothalamus?
Lowers its activity
What makes up the brainstem
Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Functions of the brainstem
- Controls homeostasis of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
- Controls motor movement of limbs and face
What is brain stem dead?
- Dysfunction of the brainstem
- Patient can be kept alive manually with artificial pumping of the heart
What is locked in syndrome?
- Loss of blood circulation to pons
- When you can't move
What is the cerebellum?
Cauliflower like structure
- Movement precision and coordination
- Contains more neurons than rest of the brain combined