Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

PY5030 CNS and Mental health > Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (37)
1

What are the hump and bumps called?

Bump is called gyri (singular:gyrus)
Inside is called sulci (singular:sulcus)

2

Describing coordination of the brain

Superior is the top = dorsal
Inferior is the bottom = ventral
Anterior is the front = rostral
Posterior is the back = caudal

3

What is the grey matter?

Neuronal cell bodies

4

What is the white matter?

Neuronal cell fibres in particular the myelin sheath

5

Different ways to cut the brain

Axial = horizontal
Coronal = cutting between front and back
Saggital = cutting between the two different hemispheres

6

Where are the ventricles located?

In the cerebral hemisphere and third ventricle is located in the thalamus

7

Function of the ventricles

Interconnected sacs filled with cerebral spinal fluid
- Protective and acts as shock absorber
- Provides chemical stability
- Contains nutrients

8

The two systems in the brain

Vascular system
- Blood supply in order to deliver O2 and nutrients as well as to remove CO2 and waste
Lymphatic system
- Very small

9

What are the four main regions of the CNS

- Forebrain
- Brainstem
- Cerebellum
- Spinal cord

10

What makes up the forebrain

Cortex, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, corpus callosum, hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus

11

What is the cortex?

Outer layer of the brain

12

What is the occipital lobe?

Responsible for visual processing e.g. colour, orientation and motion

13

What disease affects occipital lobe?

Schizophrenia which results in hallucination due to too much activity in this region

14

What is the parietal lobe?

Responsible for sensory processing and proprioception causing awareness of your limbs, space and location

15

What disease affects parietal lobe?

- Alzheimer's disease
- Struggle with locating themself in space and movement

16

What is the frontal lobe?

Responsible for personality traits
- Emotions, consciousness, deliberate movement, attention and decision making

17

What disease affects frontal lobe?

- Personality disorders and cognitive disorders
- Prefrontal lobotomy is when you cut off the front of the brain
- Results in impaired voluntary behaviour

18

What is the temporal lobe?

Responsible for language and speech, auditory processing

19

What disease affects temporal lobe?

- Autism
Compromised temporal lobe impairing verbal communication
- Stroke in language region
Results in not being able to recognise particular words or being able to say particular words

20

What is corpus callosum?

- Connects right and left hemispheres
- Comprised of neuron fibres allowing information to be passed between them

21

What does the left side of the brain control?

Language

22

What does the right side of the brain control?

Facial recognition

23

What is the hippocampus?`

- Responsible for memory formation and memory retrieval

24

What disease affects the hippocampus?

Alzheimer's disease

25

What is the basal ganglia?

Responsible for movement, balance and posture

26

What disease affects the basal ganglia?

Parkington's disease
- Neurodegenerative disease
- Caused by reduced dopaminergic function
Huntingdon's chorea
- Genetic disorder
- Enlarged ventricles cause damage to basal ganglia as they are located near each other

27

What is the thalamus?

- Consist of over 40 different nuclei
- Most of the incoming information the the brain gets sent here to be decided where to go next
- Forming information streams

28

What disease affects the thalamus?

Stroke causing thalamic damage
- Results in blending of information streams
Synasthesia is when people report hearing colours or feeling sounds

29

What is the hypothalamus?

- Temperature regulation
- Hunger/thirst

30

What disease affects hypothalamus?

- Depression
- Bipolar disorder

31

Effect of antidepressants on hypothalamus?

Lowers its activity

32

What makes up the brainstem

Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

33

Functions of the brainstem

- Controls homeostasis of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
- Controls motor movement of limbs and face
- Reflexes

34

What is brain stem dead?

- Dysfunction of the brainstem
- Patient can be kept alive manually with artificial pumping of the heart

35

What is locked in syndrome?

- Loss of blood circulation to pons
- When you can't move

36

What is the cerebellum?

Cauliflower like structure
- Movement precision and coordination
- Contains more neurons than rest of the brain combined

37

What is the spinal cord

- Transmits signals from/to the brain/body
- Includes some reflexive circuits
- Extends to about 45cm