Non-reproductive features of the Pelvis and Perineum Flashcards Preview

LSS 2 - Abdomen and Pelvis Anatomy - Laz > Non-reproductive features of the Pelvis and Perineum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Non-reproductive features of the Pelvis and Perineum Deck (33)
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1

What type of joint in the sacroiliac joint?


Synovial Joint

2

What type of joint is the pubic symphysis?


Secondary cartilaginous joint

3

What are the three main parts of the pelvis?

Ischium, pubic, ilium

4


What is the name of the surface that articulates with the head of the femur?

Acetabular fossa

5

What is considered the 'true pelvis'?

Within the pelvic inlet.

6

What constitutes the pelvic wall?

Sacrum, coccyx and pelvic bones

7


What are the two main ligaments in the true pelvis?


Sacrospinous (sacrum to the ischial spine)
Sacrotuberous (sacrum to the ischial tuberosity)

8

Describe the orientation of the pelvic cavity.

The axis of the pelvic cavity is at a 45 degree angle to the axis of the abdominal cavity

9


Which muscle lines most of the pelvic bone facing the pelvic cavity?


Obturator internus

10

Where does the obturator internus insert and what other muscle inserts here?


Medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femur - the piriformis also inserts here

11

What muscle overlays the sacrospinous ligament?

Coccygeus muscle

12

What are the three main muscles of the pelvic floor and what are they called collectively?






Iliococcygeus muscle
Pubococcygeus muscle
Puborectalis muscle
These muscles make up Levator Ani

13

What forms the border between the obturator internus and the levator ani?

Tendinous arch of obturator internus fascia

14


What other ligament is found in these group of muscles?

Anococcygeal ligament

15

What is the nerve supply to the levator ani?

Pudendal nerve (S2-S4) and directly from S4

16

What are the openings in the levator ani?










Urethra, vagina and anus

17

What is the structure that is formed by the levator ani?

Pelvic diaphragm

18

What is the name of the fat-filled space between the levator ani and the obturator internus in a male?

Ischio-anal fossa

19

What are the two sphincters in the urethra of a male?

Internal urethral sphincter
External urethral sphincter

20

What are the four parts of the male urethra? How long is it?


Preprostatic, prostatic, membranous and spongy
20 cm

21

Describe the arrangement of the uterus and the bladder in women.

The uterus sits on top of the bladder

22

What is different about the urethral sphincters in women?


Women have a poorly organised internal sphincter.
External urethral sphincter is skeletal muscle surrounding the urethra in the deep perineal pouch.

23

Where is the external urethral sphincter of women found?


In the deep perineal pouch

24

What are two additional groups of muscle found in females?

Sphinter urethrovaginalis
Compressor urethrae

25


Describe the shape of an empty bladder.




Tetrahedral

26

What are the structures are each corner of the tetrahedron?

The posterior vertices have the ureters coming from them. The anterior vertex has the median umbilical ligament. The posterior inferior vertex has the urethra coming from it.

27

Describe the structure of the rectum.


It has a double S bend. There are three transverse rectal folds (superior, middle and inferior). Keeps the load off the sphincter.

28

What vessels supply the rectum?


Superior, middle and inferior rectal arteries

29

Which nerves supply the rectum and which nerves supply the anal canal?






Rectum - autonomic nerves
Anal canal - somatic nerves

30

Which muscle is most important for faecal continence and what does it do?


Puborectalis muscle - it puts a sharp angle into the recto-anal junction.