Flashcards in The Retroperitoneum Deck (20)
State three primary retroperitoneal structures.
Kidneys and Ureters
Aorta and Inferior Vena Cava
State three secondary retroperitoneal structures.
Ascending and Descending Colon
Describe the arrangement of the kidneys in the body. What vertebral level are they at?
The kidneys are at vertebral level L1 - the left kidney is slightly higher than the right.
The superior poles of the kidneys are closer to the median plane than the inferior poles.
The 12th ribs run posteriorly across the back of the kidneys.
Describe the arrangement of the renal veins.
The renal veins join the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein runs anterior to the aorta just under the superior mesenteric artery.
What are the four parts of the duodenum and how long are each of them?
Superior - 1.5 cm
Descending - 2.7 - 10 cm
Inferior - 3.6 - 8 cm
Ascending - 4.5 cm
What structures are near the first part of the duodenum?
The first part of the duodenum is anterior to the common bile duct, the hepatic portal vein and the gastroduodenal artery.
What structures open into the second part of the duodenum?
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct open into the duodenum through the ampulla of vater. There is a small lump in the duodenum at this point called the major duodenal papilla. The release of substances from the ampulla of vater is controlled by the sphincter of Oddi.
What structures are close to the third part of the duodenum?
Superior mesenteric artery and vein cross anteriorly.
What part of the pancreas is intraperitoneal?
Tail of the pancreas (it is encased by the splenorenal ligament)
What is the pancreas derived from?
The ventral pancreatic bud and the dorsal pancreatic bud
What is the name of the mesentery between the spleen and the left kidney?
Lieno-renal ligament or spleno-renal ligament
What is the space between the liver and the right kidney called?
Heptorenal recess (of Rutherford and Morris)
What are the three branches of the coeliac trunk?
Left Gastric Artery
Common Hepatic Artery
What are the three arteries that supply the adrenal gland?
Superior suprarenal arteries, middle suprarenal artery and inferior suprarenal artery
Describe the layers of fat and fascia around the kidneys.
The kidney is encased in renal fascia
There is perirenal fat within the fascia
There is pararenal fat between the renal fascia and the transversalis fascia.
Describe the visceral relations of the kidneys.
The RIGHT kidney is covered superiorly by the liver, inferiorly by the hepatic flexure
Part of the duodenum
The LEFT kidney is covered by the loops of small intestine
Descending colon and stomach
Tail of the pancreas
Left Colic Flexure
Adrenal glands on both sides
Describe where the ureters lie.
The ureters lie anterior to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
Which rib runs posterior to the kidneys?
12th ribs run along the posterior surface of the kidneys
What are the posterior relations of the kidneys?
Lie on the diaphragm, psoas major, quadratus lumborum and transversus abdominis.