Normal Variants Flashcards Preview

Radiology Tumors > Normal Variants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Normal Variants Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

congenital anomalies of cervical spine are common or uncommon

uncommon

2

majority of affected individuals (cervical anomalies) are ___

if symptoms develop, they are due to what

asymptomatic

due to instability or degenerative OA

3

patients with upper cervical anomalies have a tendency to develop what

secondary to what

early instability and neurological problems

secondary to minor traumatic events

4

if symptoms occur in the lower cervical spine they usually occur when

due to what

in adult life

due to degenerative arthritis in the HYPERMOBILE articulations adjacent to areas of synostosis

5

the good prognosis of cervical lesions are overshadowed by what

hidden or unrecognized anomalies

6

what anomalies are considered to occur in high incidences

scoliosis
sprengels deformity
renal anomalies
deafness
neurological malformation

7

early recognition and treatment is essential why

it spares the patient from further deformity or serious illness

8

if you have a altered nerve root function then what do you rule out

herniated disc
nerve tumor
syrinx

9

what image modality do you use to see a syrinx

MRI

10

is thyroid calcification normal

what should you not confuse this with

yes its normal

vertebral artery calcification

11

supracondylar process may causes compression of what

compression of median nerve (neuropathy) especially following trauma

compression of brachial artery may occur as well

12

what are the symptoms of someone with a supracondylar process

what is associated with this process

patient complains of paresthesias in the hand - carpal tunnel like symptoms

ligament of struthers - connects medial epicondyle of the humerus

13

ligament of struthers is a __ anomaly that compresses the median nerve, brachial artery, or both

congenital anomaly

14

what is eagles syndrome

symptoms

stylohyoid ligament calcification (elongated)

foreign body sensation in the throat, dysphagia, and intermittent facial pain

others - headache, pain on neck rotation, pain on extension of the tongue, change in voice, and sensation of hyper salivation

15

how do you diagnose eagles syndrome

radiologically

confirm by palpation of tonsillar fossa

16

sprengels deformity is usually unilateral or bilateral

unilateral

17

20-25% of sprengel deformities occur with what syndrome

klippel feil syndrome

18

what bone is seen in 30-40% of sprengels deformity cases

omovertebral bone

19

downs syndrome causes what congenital anomaly in the spine

laxity of the transverse atlas ligament

20

what are downs syndrome signs and symptoms due to

mechanical compression of the cervical nerve roots or spinal cord and vertebral arteries may be distorted

gait deterioation, weakness, loss of muscle tone in legs, increased deep tendon reflexes in arms and legs

21

should you manipulate a person with a downs syndrome

no, its always dangerous adjusting the cervical spine due to laxity of the transverse atlas ligament

22

what subluxation usually occurs in downs patients

anterior subluxation of atlas

7-8 mm between anterior arch of C1 and odontoid process of C2

23

how should down syndrome patients be screened to rule out atlantoaxial instability

screened with flexed and extended lateral views

24

down syndrome patients should restrict contact sports if the ADI is what

> 4.5 mm

25

adults with down syndrome are prone to developing what

cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis

26

higher incidence of disc herniation occurs in what congenital anomaly

where does it occur

age

spina bifida occulta at S1

L5-S1 disc herniation

> 41 years

27

what occurs due to a congenital block vertebrae

myelopathy secondary to degeneration and spondylosis

28

what imaging is helpful to evaluate secondary soft complication of disc disease, stenosis, and other neurovascular problems

MRI

29

what occurs when complete or partial ossification of the oblique portion of the atlantooccipital membrane

posterior ponticle at C1

30

what should one worry about when adjusting a posterior ponticle at C1

what adjust are we worried about

vertebrobasilar insufficiency

rotatory adjustments