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Flashcards in Tutoring Session Deck (55)
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1

what are characteristics of benign vs malignant lesions

benign - single, geographic, short zone, respecting borders, well defined, no pain**

malignant - mutliple, long zone, moth eaten, permeative, periosteal reaction, destroying borders, ill defined, pain**

** pain is subjective but most commonly benign are not painful and malignant are painful

2

what tumor causes cachexia and pain

multiple myeloma

cachexia - wasting of the body

3

what tumor occurs in and affects the red marrow of bone causing osteopenia

multiple myeloma

4

what is needed to confirm diagnosis of multiple myeloma

aspiration and biopsy of bone marrow

sternum and ilium

5

what are rare sclerotic lesions of multiple myeloma called

POEMS

6

what malignant tumor spares the pedicles

multiple myeloma

7

what are risk factors for multiple myeloma

farmers, exposure to wood dust, nuclear exposure

8

what is the mnemonic for lytic lesions

fog machines
feg nomashic

fibrous dysplasia
enchondroma
giant cell tumor

non ossifying fibroma
osteoblastoma
myeloma
ABC
simple bone cyst
hyperPTH
infection
chondroblastoma

9

what is the most common sclerotic lesion tumor

central osteosarcoma

10

central osteosarcoma typically results in what issues in the limbs

asymmetry or taller limb

11

what part of the bones does central osteosarcoma affect

metaphysis

12

where will central osteosarcoma not spread to

physis - limits spread of tumor

13

what tumor will metastasize to the lungs via the blood

central osteosarcoma

"cannonball mets"

14

what tumor can cause a pneumothorax

central osteosarcoma - mets to lungs via blood "cannonball mets"

15

what tumor can cause skip lesions in the spine via mets

central osteosarcoma

16

condmans triangle and spiculated cortex describes what type of tumor

central osteosarcoma

17

what does central osteosarcoma look like on MRI sequences T1, T2, STIR

t1 - low
t2 - high
stir - high

high due to edema

18

secondary osteosarcoma arises from what

what is the most common

benign bone tumor

pagets bone 44%

19

what lab value can help monitor if pagets bone has gone malignant

alkaline phosphatase

20

what is the process of thinking to know what a tumor is

benign or malignant

matrix - bone, fibrous, cartilage

location

unique features

21

what is advantage of conventional radiography

non invasive

22

what percent of bone needs to be diminished in order to observe it on xray

30-50%

23

how long may it take to visualize osteomyelitis in peripheral bone in xray

10-14 days

occult fracture - 7-10 days
spinal osteomyelitis - 21 days
aggressive tumors - 4-6 weeks

24

what agent is used for radionucleotide bone scan

technetium methylene disphosphate

25

what is the difference between enchondral, intramembranous, and appositional bone formation

enchondral - develops from cartilage, requires cartilaginous template, forms the physis or growth plate, forms most of skeleton, controls bone lengthening

intramembranous - develops from mesenchyme/connective tissue, no cartilage stage, forms the flat bones, mandible. skull, clavicle

appositional - controls width of the bone via periosteal activity

26

what are characteristics of different layers of bone

periosteum - surrounds bone except at ends, not seen on imaging unless inflamed or pathology present

epiphysis - located at ends of long bones, preformed cartilage slowly ossifies, supports joints

apophysis - sites of muscle attachment

physis - growth plate, area of maturing cartilage that develops into bone, trauma alters growth

zone of provisional calcification - radiopaque band on either side of physis, calcification to mature bone, disease may alter and arrest growth forming harris growth arrest lines

metaphysis - most metabolic active portion of bone, most common area for tumors and infection, contains trabeculae that bears stress and weight

diaphysis - shaft of bone, thick cortex with decreased medullary cavity

27

what diseases affect the metaphysis

mutiple myeloma
ewings sarcoma
NHL
adamantinoma
infection

28

most common location for tumor inside a bone

metaphysis

metabolically active

29

diaphyseal tumors indicates what kind of disease

bone marrow disease

30

what is difference between wide and narrow zone of transition

what does each indicate

wide - little or no sclerosis around it - indicates malignancy

narrow - sharp sclerotic rings around it - indicates benign