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Flashcards in Overview Deck (40)
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1

Contraindications to ALL modalities (3)

Hemorrhage
Infection with suppuration
Malignancy (EXCEPT TENS)

2

Contraindications to heating

DM, active TB, sensory loss, pregnancy (LB or abdomen), swelling/edema/acute injury

3

Contraindications to electrical

Carotid sinus, anesthesia (EXCEPT HV), pregnancy (EXCEPT TENS), open wounds

4

Acute

Up to 72 hours

5

AC current

Biphasic (no polarity)

6

DC current

Monophasic (polarity)

7

Electrothermal

HEAT: microvibration leads to heat

8

Electrochemical

Iontophoresis DC current
Opioids: endorphins freq 1-10; enkephalins freq 70-120

9

Electrophysical

Kinetic: ions push and shift Na/K pumps resulting in contraction

10

Increase frequency

Get deeper penetration

11

Medium frequency

Decreased skin impedance (Use big electrode and increase voltage)

12

Pad rule

1 mA/ square inch pad

13

Monopolar pad

Large area or trigger/acupuncture point)
large dispersal/ground pad and active pads small

14

Bipolar

Small muscle group
dispersal and active pads are equal size

15

Quadripolar

Criss-cross pattern

16

Chronaxie

The time necessary for contraction when the rheobase is doubled

17

Rheobase

the minimum volts necessary to excite a nerve (threshold)

18

Reaction of degeneration (RD factor)

Innervated and denervated muscle respond differently. galvanic and faradic current are compared to determine extent of damage and prognosis

19

EMG

Elecromyography- best for testing muscles

20

NCV

Nerve conduction velocity- best for testing nerves

21

Arndt-Schultz Principle

Energy of modality has to be absorbed by body to stimulate physiological response

22

Grotthus-Draper law

Inverse relationship between penetration and absorption of energy

23

Hunting-Lewis reaction

Pumping of hot and cold cycles

24

Cryotherapy

1. Vasocontriction
2. Anesthesia
3. Pumping reaction

25

Cryotherapy stages

Cold, burn, ache, numb

26

Convection

Transmission of heat via gases and liquids

27

Convection examples

Hot & cold baths, IR

28

Radiation

Transmission of heat without heating intervening medium

29

Radiation examples

Lamps, MWD, IR, UV

30

Conversion

Electrical energy to mechanical energy (heat)