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Flashcards in Physiology of Aging Deck (53)
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1

Define Aging

Gradual loss in reserve capacity of organs and organ systems leading to functional impairment & ultimately to death

2

Define Homeostasis

Maintaining of the stability of the internal environment

3

Common Reduced Homeostatic Responses in the Elderly

Baroreceptor responsiveness
Thermoregulatory responses
Cardiac reserve
Thirst
Dark adaptation

4

What does a reduced baroreceptor responsiveness lead to?

Increased postural hypotension

5

What does a reduced thermoregulatory response lead to?

Higher hypothermia, hyperthermia

6

What does a reduced cardiac reserve lead to?

Fluid overload

7

What does reduced thirst lead to?

Dehydration

8

What does a reduced dark adaptation lead to?

Night driving hazards

9

Host Defense Against Infection

Skin, mucous membranes
Mucociliary defenses
Gastric
BPH
Absence of fever
PMN's altered, t-cells altered

10

Most Common Early Sign of Aging

Difficulty staying up all night & working the next day

11

Early Signs of Aging in the 30's

Easier weight gain
Graying hair, thinning hair
Wrinkling forehead & eyes
Concern about biologic clock, financial security, family obligations
Injuries "weekend warrior"

12

Signs of Aging in the 40s

Reflection on mortality, life's limitations, unreached dreams & goals
Skin changes
Vision Changes
Osteoarthritis

13

Skin Changes in the 40's

Sagging
Wrinkling
Thinning
Benign & malignant issues
Sweat glands

14

Vision Changes in the 40's

Presbyopia
Require reading glasses

15

Signs of Aging in the 50's & Early 60's

Sense of aging
Menopause
Becoming a grandparent
Death of parents, friends
Oldest at work
Physical limitations, medical problems
Senior citizen discounts
AARP membership

16

Signs of Aging in the 70's & 80's

1+ chronic disabling condition
Arthritis, HTN, hearing loss, heart conditions, visual problems, bone problems
Psychologic & social losses

17

Psychologic & Social Losses in the 70's & 80's

Retirement
Death of spouse or close family member
Children moving away
Friends dying or moving
Moving into apartment or retirement living
Inability to socialize from sensory or physical impairments

18

Aging & the Rule of Thirds

1/3 disease
1/3 inactivity
1/3 aging itself

19

Theories of Aging

Programmed phenomena
Error theory
Repair theory
Redundancy failure
Killer hormone theory

20

Describe the Programmed Phenomena

All cells bear specific "death" genes

21

Describe the Error Theory

Cellular DNA & RNA error
Accumulation of inappropriate proteins & enzymes
Unable to support cellular metabolism

22

Describe Repair Failure Theory

Failure of DNA repair

23

Describe Redundancy Failure

As cell ages, supply of redundant genes exhausted

24

Describe Killer Hormone Theory

Pituitary produces "killer" hormone destroying cell function

25

Advantages of Adaptation to Disability & to Role Losses

Greater independence
Fewer responsibilities
Reduces concern about day to day inconveniences
Financial security: SS, retirement programs

26

Hematologic Aging Changes

Slight decrease in RBC, Hgb, Hct
WBCs increase in lobulation & decrease in granulation
Changes in subsets of lymphocytes
ESR increases slightly
Physiologic anemia of aging
Decreased reserve of RBCs

27

Musculoskeletal Changes in Aging

Height: lose 2-4"
Weight: men peaks in 50s & women in 60s
Increase in density, decrease in the water content of connective tissues
Calcification of connective tissue
Decreased bone mineral content
Decrease in muscle mass

28

Results of a Decrease in the Water Content of Connective Tissues

Loss of skin elasticity
Joint stiffness

29

Result of Calcification of Connective Tissue

Atherosclerotic changes
DJD

30

Bone Loss in Women Due to

Decreased estrogen production
Vitamin D absorption declines