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Flashcards in Problem 5 Deck (44)
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Inverse projection problem

The task of determining the object responsible for a particular image on the retina

--> involves starting within the retinal image, then extending rays out from the eye


Viewpoint invariance

The ability to recognize an object seen from different viewpoints

--> enables people to tell whether faces seen from different angles are the same person


Perceptual organization

The process by which elements in the environment become perceptually grouped together to create our perception of objects

--> consists of 2 elements

a) grouping
b) segregation



Process by which visual events are put together into units or objects

ex.: Dalmatien dog
--> dark spots where put together to perceive it



Process of separating one area/ object from another

ex.: the boarders from two buildings indicate where one building ends and the other begins


What is the main question of "Gestalt psychologists" ?

How are configurations formed from smaller elements ?

Gestalt = configuration



Distinguish between

a) sensations
b) perceptions

--> believe that sensations combine to create perceptions
--> this combination is aided by the observers past experience


Apparent movement

Although a movement is perceived, nothing is actually moving

--> this can't be explained by sensation
--> the perceptual system creates a perception of movement where there actually is none

ex.: moving advertisements at the train station
=> Gestalt psychologists counter argument to structuralism


Principle of Good Continuation
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Objects that are partially covered by other objects are seen as continuing behind the covering object


Principle of Prägnanz
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Every stimulus is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible

ex.: Olympic symbol
--> we see 5 circles, not a large number of more complicated shapes

( Central Principle )


Principle of Similarity
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Similar things appear to be grouped together

--> grouping can also occur due to similar

a) shape
b) size
c) orientation


Principle of proximity
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Things that are near each other appear to be grouped together


Principle of common fate
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Things that are moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together

ex.: birds moving in the same direction appear as a unit


Principle of common region
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Elements that are within the same region of space appear to be grouped together

--> common region overpowers proximity


Principle of uniform connectedness
(Gestalts organizing principle)

A connected region of the same visual properties is perceived as a single unit

--> connectedness overpowers proximity


Principle of synchrony
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Objects that move at the same time and in sync, even when not close, are grouped together


Principle of familiarization
(Gestalts organizing principle)

Things that form patterns that are familiar or meaningful are likely to be grouped together

--> categorization


What are the main beliefs of the Gestalt psychologists ?

" the whole is different than the sum of its parts ! "

1. Sensation is not needed to create perception

2. Past experience doesn't play a role in perception as good continuation overrides it


Figure - ground segregation

We usually see a separate object as a FIGURE that stands out from its background (GROUND)


Reversible figure - ground

Occurs when the figure can also be perceived as the ground and vice versa

--> areas lower in the field of view are more likely to be perceived as a figure



If a region is in the middle of the picture / surrounded entirely by different regions, this region is the figure


Extremal edges

Answers the question if a particular region is in front of another, by different shadings of the edges

--> overrides surroundedness



Symmetrical regions are more likely to be seen as a figure



Parallel contours are more likely to belong to the same figure


Relative motion

Moving objects are more lily to be seen as figures



Refers to a view of a real world environment that contains

a) background elements
b) multiple objects that are organized in a meaningful way

--> objects are acted upon
--> scenes are acted within


Gist of a scene

Refers to the general discription of a type of scene after viewing it for a fraction of a second


Global image features

Enable us to perceive the gist of a scene

--> asses the degree of

a) naturalness
b) openness
c) roughness
d) expansion

--> contain information about a scenes structure + spatial layout


Physical regularities

Regularly occurring physical properties of the environment

1. there are more horizontal + vertical orientations on the environment

2. nearby objects usually have different colors

(light-from-above assumption)


Semantic regularities

Characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes

--> one usually knows how to visualize a particular scene