Flashcards in Problem 9 Deck (28)
Refers to the patterns of pressure changes in the air
--> created by air that is pushed from the lungs past vocal cords and into the vocal tract
Structures including the
e) soft palate
--> movement of theses structures alters the shape of the vocal tract
Vowels are produced by the vibration of the vocal cords
--> some vowels have more than one pronunciation
--> there are more vowel sounds than letters !
ex.: "e" sounds different in "head" and "heed"
Frequency peaks due to resonance of the vocal tract
--> our voice produces an infinite number of formants
--> formants 1+2 are responsible for vowel sounds
--> each vowel sound has a characteristic series of formants
Indicates the pattern of frequencies and intensities over time that make up the acoustic signal
How are consonants produced ?
Consonants are produced by a constriction or closing of the vocal tract
Refer tp rapid shifts in frequency preceding or following formants
--> associated with consonants
Refers to the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, would change the meaning of a word
--> are defined in therms of the sounds that are used to create words in a specific language
The fact that the pronunciation of a sound in a word is affected by the sounds before and after it
ex.: "boot" vs "bat"
--> even though "b" is the same in both words, one articulates each differently
Why is coarticulation an example for perceptual constancy ?
Because be perceive the sound of a phoneme as the same even though the acoustic signal is changed by coarticulation
Why might different speakers have different acoustic signals for the same phoneme or word ?
a) slow or fast speech
b) high or low pitched voice
c) sloppy pronunciation
--> all of these variabilities are reflected in spectrograms
--> listeners must transform this info into familiar words
Occurs when stimuli that exist along a continuum are perceived as divided into discrete categories
Voice onset time
Refers to the time delay between when a sound begins and when the vocal cords begin vibrating
--> property that helps us divide phonemes into discrete categories
The point along the continuum in which the perception of speech sound changes from one category to another.
--> ex.: change form "da" to "ta"
Why is phonetic boundary an example of perceptual constancy ?
Because all the stimuli on the same side of the phonetic boundary are perceived as the same category
--> this simplifies our perception of phonemes
Why is our speech perception "multimodal" ?
Because it can be influenced by information from a number of different senses
Audiovisual speech perception
Although auditory information is the major source of information for speech perception, visual information can also exert a strong influence on what we hear
Which cortical areas are activated when perceiving speech ?
Auditory cortex: lipreading
Superior temporal sulcus: Speech perception
Phonemic restoration effect
Under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be restored by the brain and may appear to be heard
--> meaningfulness makes it easier to perceive words
--> knowledge of grammar enhances effect
Perception of individual words in a conversation
--> meaning + prior knowledge are responsible for organizing sounds
Describe the chances that one sound will follow another sound
The process of learning about transitional probabilities + about other characteristics of language
Taking in characteristics of the speakers voice
--> carries information about the speakers
c) place of origin
d) emotional state
e) being sarcastic or serious
Inability (or impaired ability) to understand or produce speech, as a result of brain damage
Labored + stilted speech
--> only able to speak in short sentences
BUT: still capable of comprehension
1. Extremely disorganized + meaningless speech
2. Difficulty understanding what others say
BUT: fluent speech
Motor theory of speech perception
1. Hearing a particular speech sound activates motor mechanisms controlling the movement of the articulators
2. Activation of these motor mechanisms activates additional mechanisms that enable us to perceive the sound