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Flashcards in Problem 6 Deck (47)
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1

Symbols

Systems for

a) representing our thoughts/feelings/knowledge

b) communicating them to other people

--> this ability expands our cognitive + communicative power

2

What is required for language acquisition ?

a) comprehension
--> understanding what other say

b) production
-->speaking

c) human brain
--> only the human brain acquires a communicative system of this complexity

d) experience with human language

3

Hierarchy of speech/language development

1. Sounds --> words

2. Words --> sentences

3. Sentences --> stories / conversations

4

Generativity

Through the use of the finite set of words and morphemes in the vocabulary, one can put together an infinite number of sentences

5

Phonological development

Acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language

6

Phonemes

Units of sound in speech

--> have no meaning
--> a change in phoneme changes the meaning of the word

ex.: hip --> lip ( h+ l change the meaning )

7

Semantic development

Learning the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning

8

Morphemes

Smallest units of meaning in a language

--> composed of one ore more phonemes

ex.: dogs --> 2 morphemes (implies 2 or more dogs)

9

Syntactic development

Learning how words + morphemes are combined

10

Syntax

Rules in a language that specify how words from different categories can be combined

ex.: lila ate the lobster vs the lobster ate lila

11

Pragmatic development

Acquiring an understanding of how language is typically used to communicate

--> crucial aspect of becoming a good conversational partner

12

Metalinguistic Knowledge

Knowledge about language and its properties

13

Critical period

Time ( 5 y/o - puberty ) during which language develops readily + after which language acquisition is much more difficult

ex.: "Genie" was able to make progress, but never exceeded toddler level

14

Infant directed speech
(IDS)

Distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies

--> draws the infants attention to the speech itself
--> recognition and learning of words is better

15

Characteristics of IDS

1. Emotional tone
--> a lot of affection

2. Exaggeration

a) slower speech
b) higher voice
c) clearer vowels
d) facial expressions

16

Prosody

The characteristic rhythmic + intonation patterns with which language is spoken

--> explains why languages sound so different

17

Categorical perception

Process that allows us to distinguish sounds between categories ( phonemes )

6-8months: infants can discriminate between different languages

10-12months: can't perceive the difference anymore
--> retain their sensitivity to sounds in the native language
--> become less sensitive to nonnative speech sounds

18

Word segmentation

The process of discovering where words begin + end in fluent speech

--> emerges after 7-8months

19

Distributional properties

Certain sounds are more likely to appear together than others

--> infants use recurrent sound patterns to fish words out of the passing stream of speech

ex.: own name

20

Babbling

Repetitive consonant - vowel sequences

(after 7 months)

--> key component of this development is the exposure to their native language

21

Reference

Associating words with a meaning

--> First step in acquiring the meaning of words

22

Productive vocabulary

Refers to the words a child can say

1. children are limited by their ability to produce words clearly enough for recognition

--> this is why they adopt simplification strategies

ex.: brother --> "bubba"

2. first things they say is limited to their immediate environment

ex.: siblings, pets

!! Infants understand more words than they can produce !!

23

Holophrastic phase

Expressing a whole phrase with a single word

24

Overextension

Using a word in a broader context than is appropriate

ex.: dog --> every four legged animal

--> represents an effort to communicate, rather than lack of knowledge

25

How can adults influence the learning of speech of infants ?

1. IDS

2. highlighting new words

3. Repetition of words

4. naming games
ex.: "ich sehe was was du nicht siehst"

26

Fast mapping

Process of rapidly learning a new word from hearing the contrastive use of a familiar word + unfamiliar word

ex.: "bring me the chromium tray, not the red one"

27

Mutual exclusivity assumption

Children will expect a given entity will only have one name

--> bilingual children will not follow this assumption

28

Whole object assumption

Children expect a novel word to refer to a whole object rather than to a part/ property/ action

29

Pragmatic cues

Aspects of the social context are used for word learning

ex.: adults focusing of attention
--> relation between eye gaze + labeling

ex.: emotional Response of adults

30

Syntactic bootstrapping

Strategy of using the grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning