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1

Attachment

Close + enduring emotional bond to parents or other primary caregivers

2

Attachment theory
(Bolwby)

Children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments to caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival

3

Secure base

Refers to the idea that

a) the presence of a trusted caregiver provides the infant with a sense of security that allows the cild to explore the environment

b) caregiver serves a s a haven of safety when the infant feels threatened or insecure

4

The 4 Phases of the initial development of attachment
(Bowlby)

1. PREATTACHMENT

--> infant produces innate signals to summon the caregiver, to be comforted

2. ATTACHMENT IN THE MAKING

--> infants respond preferentially to familiar people
--> have expectations on how caregivers respond to their needs

3. CLEAR CUT ATTACHMENT

--> actively seek contact with caregivers

4. RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP

--> infants are able to organize their efforts to be near parents, due to cognitive + language abilities

5

Internal working model of attachment

Mental representation of

a) the self
b) attachment figures
c) relationships in general

--> outcome of the 4 phases of the initial development of attachment

6

Strange situation
(Ainsworth)

Procedure to asses an infants attachment to their primary caregiver

7

Which key measures provide insight into the quality of an infants attachment to the caregiver ?

1. The extent to which an infant is able to use his/her primary caregiver as a secure base

2. How the infant reacts to brief separations from the caregiver

8

Secure attachment

Infants have a high quality relationship with their attachment figure

--> Tend to be upset when caregiver leaves, but happy when caregiver returns
--> recovers quickly from distress

=> mothers are much more responsive + sensitive

9

Insecure attachment

Infants have a less positive attachment to their caregiver

--> can be classified as

a) insecure/ resistant
b) insecure/ avoidant
c) disorganized/ disorientated

10

Insecure/ Resistant attachment

Infants are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than exploring their environment

--> get upset when caregiver leaves, not easily comforted when he returns

--> seeks comfort but resists it too

11

Insecure/ Avoidant attachment

Infants are indifferent toward their caregivers and may even avoid them

--> indifferent when caregivers leave and return
--> are as easily comforted by a stranger as by a parent

12

Disorganized/ Disoriented attachment

Infants have no consistent way of coping with stress

--> behavior is contradictory and confused

ex.: in strange situation they want to approach the mother but are also rather fearful of her

13

Cultural variations in attachment
(asian vs american culture)

Cultural variations result from:

a) different WAYS of RAISING children

ex.: Japanese mothers foster a greater mother- child closeness + intimacy and greater dependency on mother

b) different experiences with SEPARATION

ex.: Japanese children in 80s didn't necessarily enroll in daycare

14

Parental sensitivity

The ability to perceive + interpret childrens attachment signals correctly ant to respond to these signals promptly and adequately

--> differences here will lead to individual differences in attachment relationships

15

Differential susceptibility

Suggests that certain genes result in children being differentially susceptible to the quality of their rearing environment

16

Which long term effects does a secure attachment have ?

Securely attached infants will

1. be better adjusted + more socially skilled

2. develop positive internal working models of attachment

3. be able to express emotions in an appropriate way +
better understand others emotions

4. have closer/ harmonious romantic relationships and with peers



17

Which long therm effects does an insecure attachment have ?

Insecurely attached infants will

1. Inhibit emotional expressiveness

2. Avoid + decline comfort from other people

3. be prone to aggressive behavior

18

Self

A conceptional system made up of ones thoughts and attitudes about oneself

--> physical being
--> social characteristics

19

Why is the development of the self of importance ?

Because the individuals self conceptions including the ways they feel about themselves appear to influence their overall feelings of well being + competence

20

Which factors influence identity formation ?

1. Secure attachment
--> individuals who experience support + warmth from parents form more mature identities


2. Historical context
--> Poorer individuals have fewer career options

21

Self esteem

Ones overall evaluation of the self and the feeling engendered by that evaluation

--> related to how satisfied people are with themselves

--> its development stems from an interaction of nature + nurture + attachment styles

22

3 Phases of breaking the bond with parents

1. Protest

2. Despair
--> parents fall into passivity

3. Detachment
--> ready to interact with other caregivers

23

4 Parenting Styles

1. Authoritative

2. Negligent

3. Authoritarian

4. Permissive/Indulgent

24

Adult attachment interview

Open ended questions about attachment, separation + loss during childhood + adulthood

25

Insecure dismissive adults

Insist in not remembering attachment related interactions but appear to have had a positive experience

--> contradict themselves when retelling stories + are unaware of their inconsistencies

26

Autonomous/ Secure adults

Describe past in a balanced manner (negative + negative events)

--> tend to be positive + warm
--> less angry + intrusive

27

Insecure/ Preoccupied adults

Tend to give confused + angry accounts of attachment related events

--> intensive focused on parents
--> seem to be caught up in attachment memories

28

Unresolved/ disorganized adults

Still struggling with loss or trauma

--> striking lapses in reasoning

29

Authoritative Parents

Are responsive to the child's emotional needs while having high standards

--> set limits and are very consistent in enforcing boundaries.

30

Negligent Parents

Parents focus on their own rather than their childrens needs

--> fail to monitor childs activity
--> try to minimize costs of interaction with the child