Prostate Cancer Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Prostate Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prostate Cancer Deck (10):
0

Possible risk factors for prostate cancer

BRCA2, PTEN, radiation exposure, diet, anabolic steroids

1

What is the most common histology of prostate cancer?

Adenocarcinoma
95 per cent
Mostly in the glandular tissue of the peripheral part of the gland

2

Presentation of prostate cancer

Frequency
Hesitancy
Poor stream
Nocturnal
Terminal dribble
Haematospermia
Erectile dysfunction
Bone pain
Hyper calcareous
Malaise, anorexia, weightless

3

Investigations in prostate cancer

Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy
MRI for staging

DRE, PSA useful to indicate need for biopsy

4

Incidence of prostate cancer

50 percent of men over 75
3rd commonest cancer in men

5

TNM staging of prostate cancer

T1 - tumour not palpable or imaged
T2 - tumour confined within prostate
T3 - tumour extends through prostate capsule
T4 - tumour is fixed/invades structures
N1 - regional node involvement
M1 - distant mets

6

What are the options for localised prostate cancer? T2 or less

Radical prostatectomy
Perineal/retroperitoneal routes
Problems: impotence, 12% mortalit
Possible adjuvant radiotherapy

Radical Radiotherapy
If PSA suggests no mets
Delayed until 6 weeks after turp to prevent structure
Curative if locally confined

7

Hormonal therapy in prostate cancer
Aims, types, response rate

Used in metastatic disease or to downstage prior to surgery

80% response rate

Lhrh agonist
Gosurelin, leuporelin
Side effects: impotence, loss of libido, tumour flare on initiation

Oestrogen
Rarely used
Side effects: impotence, loss of libido, gynaecomastia, MI

Anti androgen
Bicalutamide, cyproterone

Bilateral orchidectomy

8

Chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Which drugs, when used.

Docetaxel and prednisolone, cabaxitaxel

In castrate resistant metastatic disease

9

Prognosis of prostate cancer.
Locally advanced, after radical treatment, if metastatic

Locally advanced: 4.5 years
Locally confined with radical surgery or radio: 80-90% 10 year survival
Metastatic: 2.5 years