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Flashcards in Proteins And Mutations Deck (18):
1

Describe enzymes

Proteins
Molecules that speed up a chemical reaction
Working best at a particular temperature

2

What is the active site?

substrates molecules fit into when a reaction takes place

3

Describe gene mutations

Changes to genes

4

What are proteins made of?

Long chains of amino acids

5

Describe some functions of proteins

Collagen, structural
Insulin, hormones
Haemoglobin, carrier molecule
Enzymes, chemical reactions in body

6

How are proteins unique?

Each protein has its own number and sequence of amino acids, which results in differently shaped moleucles, which have different functions.

7

Describe enzymes

- Biological catalysts
- Catalysing chemical reactions occurring in living cells: respiration, photosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein synthesis
- having a high specificity for their substrate

8

Explain how enzyme activity is affected by pH and temperature

- lower collision rates at low temperatures
- denaturing at extremes of pH and high temperatures
- denaturing as an irreversible change inhibiting enzyme function
- denaturing changing the shape of the active sit

9

Explain the specificity of enzymes in terms of the lock and key mechanism

Each enzyme has a different number and sequence of amino acids p. This gives it a unique 3D shape,which includes an active site that only a specific reactant can fit into.

10

Formula for Q10

Q10 = rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature

11

Describe how changing temperature and pH, away from the optimum, will change the rate of reaction of an enzyme-catalysed reaction

Increase in temperature increases the number of collision and so there is in the enzyme activity. Above optimum temperature enzymes are damaged, decreasing enzyme activity. As the pH increases or decreases, the enzyme becomes less and less effective.

12

What may gene mutations lead to?

The production of different proteins

13

How do mutations occur?

Spontaneously but can be made to occur more often by radiation or chemicals

14

Can mutations be harmful?

Yes but may be beneficial or have no effect

15

Understand that only some of the full set of genes are used in any one cell

Some genes are switched off

16

What do the genes that are switched on determine?

The functions of a cell

17

Explain how changes to genes alter, or prevent the production of the protein which is normally made

The mutations change the sequence of amino acids that the genes usually code for, so different proteins are made, which causes the nature of that particular gene to change.

18

Recall some examples of protein

Collagen
Insulin
Haemoglobin