Flashcards in Proteins And Mutations Deck (18):
Molecules that speed up a chemical reaction
Working best at a particular temperature
What is the active site?
substrates molecules fit into when a reaction takes place
Describe gene mutations
Changes to genes
What are proteins made of?
Long chains of amino acids
Describe some functions of proteins
Haemoglobin, carrier molecule
Enzymes, chemical reactions in body
How are proteins unique?
Each protein has its own number and sequence of amino acids, which results in differently shaped moleucles, which have different functions.
- Biological catalysts
- Catalysing chemical reactions occurring in living cells: respiration, photosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein synthesis
- having a high specificity for their substrate
Explain how enzyme activity is affected by pH and temperature
- lower collision rates at low temperatures
- denaturing at extremes of pH and high temperatures
- denaturing as an irreversible change inhibiting enzyme function
- denaturing changing the shape of the active sit
Explain the specificity of enzymes in terms of the lock and key mechanism
Each enzyme has a different number and sequence of amino acids p. This gives it a unique 3D shape,which includes an active site that only a specific reactant can fit into.
Formula for Q10
Q10 = rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature
Describe how changing temperature and pH, away from the optimum, will change the rate of reaction of an enzyme-catalysed reaction
Increase in temperature increases the number of collision and so there is in the enzyme activity. Above optimum temperature enzymes are damaged, decreasing enzyme activity. As the pH increases or decreases, the enzyme becomes less and less effective.
What may gene mutations lead to?
The production of different proteins
How do mutations occur?
Spontaneously but can be made to occur more often by radiation or chemicals
Can mutations be harmful?
Yes but may be beneficial or have no effect
Understand that only some of the full set of genes are used in any one cell
Some genes are switched off
What do the genes that are switched on determine?
The functions of a cell
Explain how changes to genes alter, or prevent the production of the protein which is normally made
The mutations change the sequence of amino acids that the genes usually code for, so different proteins are made, which causes the nature of that particular gene to change.