Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Part 1 Deck (77)
The whole purpose of the respiratory system is to ?
support cellular respiration
1. Delivery of oxygen to the cells
2. Removal of CO2
3. Without oxygen all tissues are affected
Four processes that supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2
1. Pulmonary ventilation (air in and out)
2. External respiration (exchange of gas at lungs)
3. Transport in the systemic circulation
4. Internal respiration (exchange of gas at the tissues)
Major Organs of theh respiratory system?
Funcitonal anatomy can be divided into 3 categories. What are they?
1. Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
5. Bronchi and their branches
6. Lungs and alveoli
What is the conducting zone and what does it include?
Conducting zone: conduits to gas exchange sites
Includes all respiratory structures that do not participate in gas exchange
(just the highway!)
What is the respiratory zone?
What are the microscopic structures involved? 3
Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange
1. respiratory bronchioles,
2. alveolar ducts, and
What are the muscles involved (1)?
diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
What are the three layers of the trachael wall?
What is the mucosa made of?
2. Lamina propria
What is found in the submuscosa?
Conducting zone structures of the upper airway 5
Whats it important for?
Nose and sinuses
heating and mositening the air
Funtion of the nose and sinuses? 2
Location of the nasal musocsa?
warm, humidify and filter the air
Continuous with the mucosa of the lower respiratory tract and extends into the nasolacrimal ducts
What is contained in the nasopharynx? 1
compare the right and left main stem bronchi
Each main bronchus separates how?
(entrance, braching pattern)
Right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left
Enters hilum of one lung
Each main bronchus branches into lobar (secondary) bronchi (three right, two left)
Each lobar bronchus supplies one lobe
Air passages undergo how many orders of branching?
Branching pattern is called the what?
Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching
bronchial (respiratory) tree
What does each lobar bronchus branch into?
How big are bronchioles?
Which are the smallest?
1. Segmental (tertiary) bronchi
Segmental bronchi divide repeatedly
Bronchioles are less than 1 mm in diameter
Terminal bronchioles are the smallest, less than 0.5 mm diameter
The smooth muslces does what during when?
What medicine works on this?
What structures helps with the flexibility with air moving in and out?
constricts during bronchoconstriction
elastic fibers (connective tissues disorder pts develop restrictive disorders with this)
From bronchi through bronchioles, structural changes occur. Name these.
1. Cartilage rings give way to plates; cartilage is absent from bronchioles
2. Epithelium changes from pseudostratified columnar to cuboidal;
3. cilia and goblet cells become sparse
4. Relative amount of smooth muscle increases
Whats the main site for gas exchage?
What kind of cells are they (alveolar wall) made of?
type 1 alveolar cells basement membrane
1 cell layer thick
What are type 2 cells and what do they produce?
Type II (surfactant-
HOw thick is the air blood barrier?
What is the respiratory membrane made of?
Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Scattered type II cuboidal cells secrete what? 2
surfactant and antimicrobial proteins
What are alveoli surrounded by?
They contain open pores that do what? 2
What do alveoli house and what are the purpose of these?
Surrounded by fine elastic fibers
Contain open pores that
1. Connect adjacent alveoli
2. Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized
House alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile
In COPD what would the alveoli look like?
grapes are popped to make one big one. really large alveoli. disrupting the funtion of the alveolar wall
Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except for what?
What is the root of the lungs?
What is the costal surface made of? 3
site of vascular and bronchial attachments
anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces
Compare the left and right lung?
Number of Bronchopulmonary segments on each?
Left lung is smaller, separated into two lobes by an oblique fissure
Right lung has three lobes separated by oblique and horizontal fissures
Bronchopulmonary segments (10 right, 8–9 left)
What are the smallest subdivisions and what are they served by?
How many segments does each lobe of the lungs have:
Right superior lobe?
Right middle lobe?
Right inferior lobe?
Left superior lobe?
Left inferior lobe?
Lobules are the smallest subdivisions; served by bronchioles and their branches
inferior lobe (5 segments)
lobe (5 segments)
Gotta cut like broccoli or cauliflower. and then tie up the vessels to that area (for surgery)
1. Describe the pressure and volume of pulmonary circulation?
2. Pulmonary arteries deliver what kind of blood?
3. where do they feed into?
4. pulmonary veins carry what kind of blood and from where?
1. low pressure, high volume
2. Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood
3. Branch profusely, along with bronchi and feed into the pulmonary capillary networks
4. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart