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1

The whole purpose of the respiratory system is to ?

Three exmples?

support cellular respiration

1. Delivery of oxygen to the cells
2. Removal of CO2
3. Without oxygen all tissues are affected

2

Four processes that supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2

1. Pulmonary ventilation (air in and out)
2. External respiration (exchange of gas at lungs)
3. Transport in the systemic circulation
4. Internal respiration (exchange of gas at the tissues)

3

Major Organs of theh respiratory system?
6


Funcitonal anatomy can be divided into 3 categories. What are they?

1. Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
2. Pharynx
3. Larynx
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi and their branches
6. Lungs and alveoli


conducting zone
respiartory zone
respiarotyr muscles

4

What is the conducting zone and what does it include?

Conducting zone: conduits to gas exchange sites
Includes all respiratory structures that do not participate in gas exchange

(just the highway!)

5

What is the respiratory zone?

What are the microscopic structures involved? 3

Respiratory zone: site of gas exchange



Microscopic structures:
1. respiratory bronchioles,
2. alveolar ducts, and
3. alveoli

6

What are the muscles involved (1)?

Respiratory muscles:
diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation

7

What are the three layers of the trachael wall?

mucosa
submucosa
hylaine cartilage

8

What is the mucosa made of?
2

1. Pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
epithelium
2. Lamina propria
(connective tissue)

9

What is found in the submuscosa?

Seromucous gland
in submucosa

10

Conducting zone structures of the upper airway 5

Whats it important for?

Nose and sinuses
Pharynx
Nasopharyx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

heating and mositening the air

11

Funtion of the nose and sinuses? 2

Location of the nasal musocsa?

Produce mucus,
warm, humidify and filter the air

Nasal mucosa
Continuous with the mucosa of the lower respiratory tract and extends into the nasolacrimal ducts

12

What is contained in the nasopharynx? 1

Oropharyx? 3

Layngopharynx? 1

Nasopharynx
-adenoids
Oropharynx
-Palatine tonsils,
-lingual tonsil
-Epiglottis
Laryngopharynx
-Vocal cords

13

compare the right and left main stem bronchi


Each main bronchus separates how?
(entrance, braching pattern)

Right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left

Enters hilum of one lung
Each main bronchus branches into lobar (secondary) bronchi (three right, two left)
Each lobar bronchus supplies one lobe

14

Air passages undergo how many orders of branching?

Branching pattern is called the what?

Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching

bronchial (respiratory) tree

15

What does each lobar bronchus branch into?

How big are bronchioles?

Which are the smallest?

1. Segmental (tertiary) bronchi
Segmental bronchi divide repeatedly

Bronchioles are less than 1 mm in diameter
Terminal bronchioles are the smallest, less than 0.5 mm diameter

16

The smooth muslces does what during when?

What medicine works on this?

What structures helps with the flexibility with air moving in and out?

constricts during bronchoconstriction

bronchodilators

elastic fibers (connective tissues disorder pts develop restrictive disorders with this)

17

From bronchi through bronchioles, structural changes occur. Name these.

4

1. Cartilage rings give way to plates; cartilage is absent from bronchioles
2. Epithelium changes from pseudostratified columnar to cuboidal;
3. cilia and goblet cells become sparse
4. Relative amount of smooth muscle increases

18

Whats the main site for gas exchage?

What kind of cells are they (alveolar wall) made of?

alveolar sacs

type 1 alveolar cells basement membrane
1 cell layer thick

19

What are type 2 cells and what do they produce?

Type II (surfactant-
secreting) cell

20

HOw thick is the air blood barrier?

~0.5-μm

21

What is the respiratory membrane made of?

Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

22

Scattered type II cuboidal cells secrete what? 2

surfactant and antimicrobial proteins

23

What are alveoli surrounded by?

They contain open pores that do what? 2

What do alveoli house and what are the purpose of these?

Surrounded by fine elastic fibers

Contain open pores that
1. Connect adjacent alveoli
2. Allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized

House alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile

24

In COPD what would the alveoli look like?

grapes are popped to make one big one. really large alveoli. disrupting the funtion of the alveolar wall

25

Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except for what?

mediastinum

26

What is the root of the lungs?

What is the costal surface made of? 3

site of vascular and bronchial attachments

anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces

27

Compare the left and right lung?

Number of Bronchopulmonary segments on each?

Left lung is smaller, separated into two lobes by an oblique fissure

Right lung has three lobes separated by oblique and horizontal fissures

Bronchopulmonary segments (10 right, 8–9 left)

28

What are the smallest subdivisions and what are they served by?

How many segments does each lobe of the lungs have:

Right superior lobe?

Right middle lobe?

Right inferior lobe?

Left superior lobe?

Left inferior lobe?

Lobules are the smallest subdivisions; served by bronchioles and their branches

Right
superior
lobe (3
segments)

Right
middle
lobe (2
segments)

Right
inferior lobe (5 segments)

Left superior
lobe
(4 segments)

Left inferior
lobe (5 segments)

Gotta cut like broccoli or cauliflower. and then tie up the vessels to that area (for surgery)

29

1. Describe the pressure and volume of pulmonary circulation?

2. Pulmonary arteries deliver what kind of blood?

3. where do they feed into?

4. pulmonary veins carry what kind of blood and from where?

1. low pressure, high volume

2. Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood

3. Branch profusely, along with bronchi and feed into the pulmonary capillary networks

4. Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart

30

Describe the pressure and volume of systmeic circulation?

Bronchial arteries provide what kind of blood and to where?

Where do they arise from?

They supply all lung tissue exacept what?

Bronchial veins anastomose with what?

Pulmonary veins carry what kind of blood and where?

Systemic circulation (high pressure, low volume)

Bronchial arteries provide oxygenated blood to lung tissue

Arise from aorta and enter the lungs at the hilum

Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli

Bronchial veins anastomose with pulmonary veins

Pulmonary veins carry most venous blood back to the heart