Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Part 2 Deck (16)
There are 4 lung volumes and 4 lung capacities. What are they?
1. Tidal volume
(regular breathing in and out)
2. inspiratory reserve volume (take a deep breath above what they nomarlly breath),
3. expiratory reserve volume (exhale past what they normally breath out)
4. residual volume (whats left over, necessary to keep the lungs inflated)
Capacities (sum of 2 or more lung volumes)
1. Inspiratory capacity,
2. functional residual capacity,
3. vital capacity and
4. total lung capacity
What are the respiratory volumes used for?
assess respiratory status
Air trapping disease would cause which volume to be high?
The 4 respiratory capacities always consist of what?
2 or more lung volumes
Inspiratory capacity (IC)?
Functional residual capacity (FRC)?
Vital capacity (VC) ?
Total lung capacity (TLC) ?
Tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume
Expiratory reserve volume + Residual volume
TV + IRV + ERV
Sum of all the lung volumes
Instrument used to measure respiratory volumes and capacities?
Spirometry can distinguish between what two pathologies?
1. Obstructive pulmonary disease—increased airway resistance (e.g., bronchitis)
2. Restrictive disorders—reduction in total lung capacity due to structural or functional lung changes (e.g., fibrosis or TB)
What values can be obtained from spirometry?
Forced vital capacity (FVC):
Forced expiratory volume (FEV):
Peak expiratory flow rate
Flow volume loop
What is FVC?
gas forcibly expelled after taking a deep breath
What is FEV?
the amount of gas expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC
What values will change as a result of an obstructive disease? 3
What values will change as a result of restrictive disease?4
Increases in TLC, FRC, and RV may occur
Reduction in VC, TLC, FRC, and RV result
How do alterations in the tidal volume and respiratory rate affect the patient?
Need to consider dead space and how it contributes to alveolar ventilation
What is dead space?
What are the kinds and describe them? 3
Some inspired air never contributes to gas exchange
1. Anatomical dead space: volume of the conducting zone conduits (~150 ml)
2. Alveolar dead space: alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction
3. Total dead space: sum of above nonuseful volumes
What is Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)?
flow of gases into and out of the alveoli during a particular time
Whats the equation to find Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)?
AVR=frequency X (TV – dead space)