What are the main components in the Synovial Joint? (select all)
A. Synovial membrane
B. Spongy Bone
C. Marrow Cavity
D. Joint Cavity
E. Articular Cartilage
Synovial joints are also known as ___ joints.
T/F The main functions of a synovial joint is motion and flexibility
What is the main function of Articular cartilage?
A. Reduces friction and absorbs shock
B. To form a calcified stationary structure
C. To allow for two bones to collide with eachother without the need for synovial fluid
D. None of the above
Which of the following cell-types is responsible for maintaining Articular Cartilage?
Articular cartilage is made of 85% water. What is the other 15% consisting of? (select all)
A. Type-II collagen
A, C, D
All of these will change with age.
The synnovial membrane is normally __ to __ cell layers thick and produces ______
A. 1 to 3, Blood
B. 8 to 10, Synovial fluid
C. 1 to 3, Synovial Fluid
D. 8 to 10, Blood
All of the following are functions of synovial fluid EXCEPT:
A. Lubricates joints
B. Supplies nutrients to chondrocytes
C. Removes waste products
D. Transports blood to the knee
A, B, C
Cartilage is avascular and does not contain blood, niether does the synovial fluid.
What is the purpose of hyaluronate in synovial fluid?
A. Maintaining adequate temperature of synovial fluid
C. Nourishment of the chondrocytes
D. Destruction of waste
T/F Synovial fluid does not require movement of the joint in order to remove waste products.
Which of the following statments is true about Osteoarthritis? (Select all)
A. Begins with trauma or stress on cartilage
B. Begins as an autoimmune condition
C. Caused by age and cartilage damage (destruction) outpaces repair
D. Hyaluronic acid concentration in synovial fluid decreases as concentration of water increases.
E. Involves the synnovial membrane initially swelling and growing, leading to bone and cartilage erosion.
A, C, D
Which of these factors leads to abnormal stresses on the joint? (Select All)
A. Trauma and Obesity
B. Anatomic abnormalities
C. Loss of joint stability
E. Microfractures and bony remodeling (spurs)
A, B, C, E
Which of the following factors causes abnormal cartilage (select all)
B. Genetic and metabolic diseases
D. Immune system activity
A, B, C, D
Which of the following are considered non-pharmacological treatments for osteoarthritis?
A. Weight loss/ diet
D. All of the above
All of the following areas are COMMONLY effected by osteoarthritis EXCEPT:
D. Hands (fingertips)
E. Bases of hands
Bases of the hands are mostly affected by Rheumatoid arthritis
What types of drugs can be used to aleviate Pain and/or Inflammation? (Select All)
C. Vitamin E
E. Narcotic Analgesics
A, B, E
When Arachidonic acid is metabolized by COX-1 what can be produced?
C. Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes
When Arachidonic acid is metabolized by COX-2 what can be produced?
C. Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes
Prostaglandins affect all of these EXCEPT:
A. Pain and Fever (increase)
B. Renal function (impairment)
C. Tissue repair and reproduction
D. Gastric functions (protection)
E. Platelet Aggregation
T/F Platelet aggregation is affected by thromboxanes
Which of the following statements regarding acetaminophen is true? (Select all)
A. Has strong anti-inflammatory properties
B. Has little if any anti-thrombotic activity
C. Is a good analgesic
D. Brand names include paracetamol and APAP
E. Is a COX-2 selective drug
B, C, D
All of the following are mechanisms of action of Acetaminophen EXCEPT:
A. COX inhibitor
B. Acts peripherally in the body
C. Acts centrally in the body
D. Pain reliever with little to no anti-inflammatory properties
Know mainly it is a CENTRAL cox inhibitor NOT peripheral
Which of the following statements regarding Acetaminophen is true?
A. Displays no nephrotoxicity
B. Displays no Hepatotoxicity
C. Lower incidence of side effects such as GI distress
D. Has an equal chance to cause Reye syndrom in comparison to Aspirin
What is the name of the metabolite that is produced from CYP450 enzymes when metabolizing acetaminophen?
C. Glutathione (GSH)
What specific CYP450 enzymes are responsible for metabolizng APAP to NAPQI? (select all)
NAPQI is not dangerous as itself in the body. It becomes hepatotoxic to the liver if not enough ____ is present. When this happens it is metabolized by ____ instead, producing hepatotoxic metabolites.
A. Glutathione (GSH), UDP(Glucuronidation)
B. Hepatic SH Proteins, Glutathione (GSH)
C. Glucuronidation (UDP), Glutathione (GSH)
D. Glutathione (GSH), Glucuronidation (UDP)
E. Glutathione (GSH), Hepatic SH proteins
What is used to treat APAP overdose? (Select All)
A. Activated charcoal
NSAIDs produce an antipyretic effect by inhibiting the prostaglandin ____. This particular prostaglandin is present in the brain so inhibiting it is a ____ effect.
A. PGE2, Peripheral
B. PGI2, Peripheral
C. PGE2, Central
D. PGI2, Central
The antithrombotic effects of NSAIDs is done by the inhibition of ___ enzymes. The particular prostaglandin that is not being produced as a result is ___.
A. COX-1, PGE2
B. COX-1, Thromboxane (TxA2)
C. COX-2, Thromboxane (TxA2)
D. COX-2, PGE2
Prostaglandins in the stomach are known to be gastroprotective. What is the function of prostaglandins in the stomach? (Select All)
A. Decrease gastric acid secretion
B. Increase bicarbonate secretion
C. Decrease mucous secretion
D. Increase gastric acid secretion
E. Increase mucous secretion
A, B, E