Signs and Symptoms and General Diagnosis in Dermatology Flashcards Preview

OS 212 DERMATOLOGY > Signs and Symptoms and General Diagnosis in Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Signs and Symptoms and General Diagnosis in Dermatology Deck (67):
1

Primary Lesions

macules
Papules
Vesicles
Pustules
Nodules
Comedo
Cyst
Tumor
Wheal
Telangiectasia
Purpura
Sclerosis

2

Secondary lesions

Scales
Crusts
Erosions
Ulcers
Fissures
Excoriations
Scars
Lichenification
Atrophy
Sclerosis

3

Caused by capillary dilatation. Usually diffuse involvement of the skin

Erythema

4

Violaceous eythema and swelling around periorbital area

Dermatomyositis

5

Caused by extravasated red blood cells

Purpura

6

Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; when you biopsy it you would see leukocytoplastic vasculitis

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

7

increased melanin in the basal layer

Freckles

8

Increased melanin in the basal layer with increased number of melanocytes

Cafe-au-lait spots nd lentigo

9

Common among women who had been pregnant or are taking oral contraceptive pills

Melasma

10

Decreased melanin in epidermis, usually seen in atopic dermatitis

Hypopigmentation
(Pityriasis alba)

11

Substance secreted by M. furfur

Azelaic acid

12

Absence of melanocytes in epidermis

Depigmentation

13

Consistency of Neurofibroma

soft

14

Hyperpigmented lesion, usually seen in the legs and usually secondary to some form of trauma

Dermatofibroma (firm consistency)

15

Benign follicular tumor, histologically will show ghost cells

Pilomatricoma

consistency (HARD)

16

localized scleroderma-whitish indurated patch (palpate it to appreciate induration or firmness/boardlike quality)

Morphea

17

Tender nodules that involve subcutaneous tissue; histology would show septal pappiliditis. Clinically, this may also present with post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation

Erythema Nodosum

18

Shape of Lesion

ROund or oval
Polygonal
Annular
Polycyclic wheals
Iris
Serpiginous
Umbilicated

19

Target Lesions. Appears as concentric rings

Erythema Multiforme

20

Arrangement of Multiple Lesions

Grouped
Disseminated

21

Multiple eruptive seborrheic keratosis, most commonly associated with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma

Lesser Trelait Sign

22

Most common cutaneous symptom

Pruritus

23

The sensation of pruritus is carried from the skin by ???

Unmyelinated C fibers

24

Mediator of Itch on the Skin

Histamine
Serotonin
Endopeptidases
Neuropeptidas
Eicosanoids

25

4P's of Lichen Planus

Pruritic
Polygonal
Purplish
Papules

26

Dermatitis herpetiformis

show deposition of IgA at the tips of the dermal papilla; Histopath to confirm diagnosis; do not scratch because you will develop new lesions when it is traumatied (KOEBER PHENOMENON)

27

Pain, tingling sensation before skin lesions and post herpetic neuralgia (sensation of pain remains even when the lesions disappear)

herpes Zoster

28

Tender, reddish-brown tumors seen in the arms and may also involve the trunk; biopsy to confirm

Pilar Leiomyoma

29

Normal hair loss:

50 to 100 strands per day)

30

Patchy baldnes which can be solitary or several that typiccally begins with rapid hair loss on discrete areas of the scalp

Alopecia Areata

31

Characteristic diagnostic finding is short, broken hairs called exclamation point hairs. Associated with autoimmune diseases like thyroid disease or vitiligo

Alopecia areata

32

Total loss of scalp hair
Can Affect eyebrows and eyelashes

Alopecia Totalis

33

Total loss of both body and scalp hair

Alopecia Universalis

34

Also known as male-pattern baldness. Recession begins above temples. Hairline eventually form a characteristic "M" Shape

Androgenic Alopecia

35

Increased shedding of hair resulting from the early entry in the telogen phase

Telogen Effluvium

36

Resting phase of the hair follicle when hair strands are shed off

Telogen Phase

37

Causes of Telogen Effluvium

Pregnancy (Shedding of hair 4 months after but will grow again)

Discontinuing or changing type of oral contraceptives

Major surgical procedure

"Crash" dieting

38

Green/yellow- green fluorescence with Wood's lamp

Tinea capitis

39

Green patch type

ectothrix

40

Starts out as a more typical presentation of tinea capitis but is endothrix (invasion of hair shaft)

Kerion (Tinea capitis)

-does not exhibit fluorescence with the Wood's lamp

-can cause inflammation and deteriorate to a deep abscess

41

a rare inflmmatory condition that results in patchy progressive permanent hair loss mainly in the scalp

Lichen planopilaris

42

Causes of Nail splitting

Nail trauma
Skin Irritations
LAck of moisture
Artificial nail coatings
Repetitive exposure to water and harsh chemicals
Deficiencies of IRON VIT. C or PROTEIN

43

Transverse splitting into layers at or near the free edge

Onychoschizia (lamellar dystrophy)

44

Longitudinal ridging and splitting of the free edge

Onychorrhexis (Brittle nails)

45

Small punctate depressions on the surface of the nail

Nail Pitting

46

Presence of misshapen, partially or completely destroyed nail plates

Dystrophic nails

caused by:
Psoriasis
Onychomycosis
Trauma

47

Orange brown or tan brown spot in nails

Can be yellowish - rule out of fungal infection

Oil spots of psoriasis

48

Melanocytic nevus in white persons, maybe normal in black/brown-skinned persons.. if it extends to periungual skin (HUTCHINSON SIGN), then rule out melanoma

Brown linear band or streak

49

Transverse depressions across the fingernail. Can occur after acute stress such as MI, hypotension, shock, injury to the nail, malnutrition, severe infection during chemotherapy for cancer

Beau's lines

50

If the length of the Beau's line is somewhere in middle

stressful event occured 1 1/2 - 3 months

51

Dilated capilalries around the nail. Might be indicative of connective tissue disorders such as Dermatomyositis, LE, RA

Periungual telangiectasia

52

Bulbous enlargement and broadening of the fingertips. Lovibond's angle exceeds 180 degrees

Clubbing

-inherited: AD

53

Normal Lovibond's angle

160 degrees

54

Severe form of erythema multiforme (EM). Involves 2 or more mucous membranes such as oral cavity/lips, eyes/cojunctiva, perianal, genital mucosa

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)

55

SJS separation of epidermis from dermis

<10%: SJS
>30%: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)
10-30%: overlap between SJS and TEN

56

Autoimmune Disorder. Initial and can be the only manifestation: blisters and erosions in the inner lining of oral cavity

Pemphigus Vulgaris

57

Biopsy of Pemphigus Vulgaris

Biopsy will reveal a suprabasal blister

Dx can also be made by direct immunofluorescence IgG+ complement deposited in between keratinocytes in the epidermis

58

Large erosions due to tendency to extend peripherally after application of pressure (in Pemphigus Vulgaris)

Nikolsky sign

59

Erythematous scaly plaques
Advancing borders
Central clearing
Very pruritic
Named according to body part affected

Dermatophytoses

60

Burning, eythematous, moist,partially eroded patch after application of irritant

irritant Contact Dermatitis

61

Solitary or multiple wart like papules

Verruca

62

Plaques with silvery white scales

Psoriasis

63

common chronic skin disease involving blockage and/or inflammation of pilosebaceous units

Acne Vulgaris

64

Firm, tender nodule

Furuncle

65

Hypoesthetic (reduced sense of torch or sensation) plaque with erythematous border and hypopigmented center

Tuberculoid Leprosy

66

Circumscribed plaque from repetitive rubbing and scratching

Lichen SImplex/Chronicus

67

Hyperpigmented macules due to herpes zoster infection

Post-Inflammatory changes