Flashcards in Sympathetics Part 2 Deck (33)
Which cervical sympathetic ganglion is the smallest?
middle cervical ganglion
Where is the middle cervical ganglion located?
at level of C6
T/F: The middle cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk carries parasympathetic info.
The middle cervical ganglia communicate with the anterior primary rami of which nerves via the gray rami communicans?
C5 and C6
Which glands receive branches directly from the middle cervical ganglion?
thyroid and parathyroid glands
What is the primary function of the thyroid branches from the middle cervical ganglion?
Cardiac branches from the middle cervical ganglion make up the middle cardiac nerves. What do these nerves contribute to?
the deep part of the cardiac plexus
How often does the inferior cervical ganglion fuse with the 1st thoracic ganglion to form the stellate ganglion?
about 80% of the time
Where is the inferior cervical ganglion located?
at the level of C7 transverse process and neck of 1st rib
Which anterior primary rami does the inferior cervical ganglion communicate with via gray rami communicans?
C7 and C8 (also T1 if fused to form stellate)
What are the branches from the inferior cervical ganglion called which travel to the heart?
inferior cardiac nerves
What major arteries does the inferior cervical ganglion send branches to form plexuses around?
subclavian artery and its branches, namely axillary and vertebral arteries
How many ganglia usually exist in the thoracic area of the sympathetic trunk?
usually 11, sometimes 12
How many ganglia are usually in the thoracic area of the sympathetic trunk when the stellate is present and considered a cervical ganglion?
usually 10, sometimes 11
T/F: All thoracic nerves have a gray and a white ramus communicans.
T/F: In the superior thorax, ganglia are located on the lateral aspects of the vertebral bodies.
False; this is true of the lower part of the thorax. In the superior thorax, ganglia are located anterior to the rib heads.
Which sympathetic thoracic ganglia travel medially and supply structures in the thoracic cavity?
the upper 5 thoracic ganglia
T/F: the branches from the upper five thoracic ganglia carry postganglionic fibers and visceral efferents.
False; postganglionic fibers and visceral afferents
How many splanchnic nerves are associated with the lower seven segments of the thoracic sympathetic trunk? What are they?
3; greater splanchnic, lesser splanchnic, and least splanchnic nerves
T/F: the splanchnic nerves associated with lower seven segments of the thoracic sympathetic trunk carry fibers to plexuses in the abdominal and pelvic cavities as well as visceral afferent info.
What splanchnic nerve is formed from the 5th through 9th thoracic ganglia and terminates in the celiac ganglion?
greater splanchnic nerve
What splanchnic nerve is formed by the 9th and 10th (or 10th and 11th) thoracic ganglia then ends in the aorticorenal ganglion?
lesser splanchnic nerve
Which splanchnic nerve is formed by fibers from the 12th thoracic ganglion and terminates in the renal plexus?
least splanchnic nerve
Which part of the sympathetic trunk is considered retroperitoneal?
lumbar (maybe part of the thoracic too)
How many lumbar ganglia are usually associated with the sympathetic trunk?
Which lumbar nerves have a white ramus communicans that carries preganglionic axons into the sympathetic trunk?
the first two, sometimes the third
Which lumbar nerves have a gray ramus communicans?
How many lumbar splanchnic nerves carry preganglionic axons to the plexus surrounding the abdominal aorta?
Where are the sacral sympathetic trunks located?
anterior aspect of sacrum medial to the anterior sacral foramina