Systems Path I - Neuro PPT 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Systems Path I - Neuro PPT 1 Deck (54)
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1

what is the 3rd leading cause of death in the US

stroke

2

occlusion at ____ causes cortical infarcts with motor and sensory loss and often aphasia

trifurcation

3

occlusion at ____ reveals large infarct of the right hemisphere with swelling and focal dusky discoloration

middle cerebral artery

4

with age, astrocytes are prone to

develop glucose polymer inclusion bodies, termed corpora amylacea

5

_______ to the CNS as Schwann cells are the PNS

oligodendroglia cells

6

what is responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid and consists of papillae with a highly vascular core covered by cuboidal epethelium

choroid plexus

7

what is rich in neurons, including cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia

gray matter

8

functions of the cerebral cortex

though, voluntary movement, language, reasoning, perception

9

functions of the cerbellum

movement, balance, posture

10

functions of the midbrain

vision, audition, eye movement, body movement

11

functions of the brain stem

breathing, heart rate, blood pressure

12

functions of the thalamus

sensory processing, movement

13

functions of hypothalamus

body temp, emotions, hunger, thirst, circadian rhythms

14

functions of the limbic system

emotions, memory

15

accumulation of CSF OR failure of CSF absorption from the cranial vault resulting in dilation of these structures

hydrocephalus

16

hydrocephalus: obstruction of foramen of Monro may lead to dilation of one or both lateral ventricles

non communicating or obstructive hydrocephalus

17

hydrocephalus: paired with degenerative disease, accompanied by normal intracranial pressure and is therefore also called a

normal-pressure hydrocephalus

18

60 yo patient, autopsy is showing lesion in ventricles (foramen of monro). diagnosis

non communicating type or obstructive type hydrocephalus

19

infancy and childhood, before the cranial sutures have fused, the head enlarges. leads to increased intracranial pressure with headache, confusion, etc

hydrocephalus in a newborn

20

brain may be forced out of one compartment into another

brain herniation

21

one hemisphere is forced under the falx, cingulate lobe is the first part of that hemisphere to be displaced

cingulate or subfalcine herniation

22

cingulate or subfalcine herniations may be associated with compression of branches of what artery

anterior cerebral artery

23

ipsilateral oculomotor nerve is crushed by the displaced temporal lobe, leading to ipsilateral pupillary dilation and paresis of all extra ocular muscles

uncinate or transtentorial herniation

24

medial displacement continues, the midbrain shifts away from the displaced hemisphere, leading to pressure affect on the contralateral cerebral pedicle

uncinate or transtentorial herniation

25

brainstem and cerebellum may be forced through the foramen magnum; compressed cerebellar tonsils and medulla may lead to lethal compression of vital meduallary centers

cerebellar tonsillar herniation

26

rounded lobules or the cerebellum to become herniated or to be moved or pressed away from their usual position inside of the skull downward through the large opening in the base of the skull (foramen magnum) into the spinal canal

chiari malformation

27

which form of chiari malformation is the simplest and most prevalent

chiari malformation 1 (CM1)

28

both hemispheres herniate transtentorially; causes dilation of the pupils, flaccidity and coma

central herniation

29

accumulation of the excess fluid within the brain parenchyma

cerebral edema

30

cerebral edema: water is driven across an intact blood brain barrier by osmotic forces; caused by failure of cells or systemic water overload

cytotoxic edema