Systems Path I - Neuro PPT 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Systems Path I - Neuro PPT 1 Deck (54)
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31

cerebral edema: most common cause of edema, seen with neoplasms, abscesses, meningitis, hemorrhage, contusions, and lead poisoning

vasogenic edema

32

cerebral edema: interstitial edema involves overproduction so that the fluid seeps across the ependymal lining of the ventricles to accumulate within the white matter

interstitial edema

33

middle cerebral artery distribution is most commonly affected, obstruction of local blood supply by thrombosis or emoblism

focal cerebral ischemia

34

infracted tissue is infiltrated by macrophages, becomes grossly conspicuous and is called "laminar necrosis"

global cerebral ischemia (widespread neuronal death)

35

10 to 3 weeks, tissue liquefies, eventually leaving a fluid filled cavity lined by dark gray tissue which gradually expands

cerebral infarction

36

results from venous sinus thrombosis, grossly they are very hemorrhagic

venous infarction

37

52 yo patient demonstrating a cystic lesion involving the lateral left frontal lobe

left frontal infarct (cystic lesion)

38

ischemic changes in neurons are called

red neurons

39

how does an infarct become cystic

phagocytosis of the necrotic, lipid rich tissue by macrophages, which migrate into the infarct during the final week (takes about 6 months)

40

major risk factors for development of cerebral atherosclerosis

hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and aging

41

50 yo male patient was found unconscious and vigorously resuscitated, generalized swelling and irregular discoloration of gray matter, features indicative of irreversible, widespread brain injury caused by total circulatory arrest

global hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

42

hypertensive cerbro vascular accident: filled with scattered lipid laden macrophages and surrounding gliosis

lacunar infarcts

43

transient weakness and speech difficulty likely reflect brief episodes of vascular occlusion by small embolic fragments

transient ischemic attacks (occurs with patients with atherosclerotic stenosis)

44

extravasation of blood with compression of adjacent parenchyma; causes are hypertensive hemorrhages

intraparenchymal hemorrhage

45

hemorrhagic necrosis are mostly _____ in origin; seen in the _____ or _______

venous
superior sagittal sinus or deep cerebral veins

46

rupture of 'berry aneurysms" is most frequent cause of the ______, may be due to extension of traumatic hematoma

subarachnoid hemorrhage

47

what is the most common predisposing factor to spontaneous brain parenchymal hemorrhage

hypertension

48

strokes due to ischemia/infarction

1. large vessel atherosclerotic disease (non-hemorrhagic)
2. embolic (hemorrhagic)
3. hypertensive (hemorrhages and lacunars)
4. vasospasm (second to subarachnoid hemorrhage)
5. watershed infarct (hypertension or hypoxia)
6. venous thrombosis
7. TIA

49

strokes due to hemorrhage

1. hypertension (most common)
2. aneurysms like berry aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage

50

blow to the head with skull fracture

epidural hematoma

51

significant cause of death after head injuries from falls, assaults, vehicle accidents, and sport injuries

subdural hematoma

52

occurs in the boxing ring as the consequence of a blow that deflects the head upward and posteriorly or seen in football injuries

parenchymal injuries (concussion)

53

when the brain strikes the irregular bony contours of the skull as a result of abrupt acceleration or deceleration

cerebral contusion or brain bruise

54

penetrating traumatic brain injury: absence of direct damage to the vital brain centers, immediate threat to life is

hemorrhage