Flashcards in 05b: Urinary tract/Kidney Deck (46)
Bladder cancer: (X) is the major risk factor and is responsible for (Y)% of cases
X = smoking (4x risk)
Y = 50
Chronic inflammation, such as in (X) conditions, increases risk of which urothelial cancers?
X = catheter or schistosomiasis
Squamous and transitional cell carcinomas of bladder
Which drug causes 9x increased risk of bladder cancer?
Bladder cancer: T1 involves (X) layer. T2 involves (Y) layer. T3 involves (Z) layer.
X = mucosa
Y = mucosa and muscularis
Z = mucosa, muscularis, and fat
Bladder cancer: Rx and prognosis for stage T1
TUR (Transurethral resection)
Good prognosis, but can recur
Bladder cancer: Rx and prognosis for stage T2
60% 5y survival
Bladder cancer: prognosis for stage T3
10% 5y survival
Bladder cancer can be identified early with thorough work-up of (X) patients that present with (Y)
x = >40 years old
Y = hematuria (evaluate by cytoscopy)
Bladder cancer: Deletion of (X) is an early event. Deletion of (Y) happens later and has been linked to poorer prognosis.
X = chromosome 9q
Y = Rb and p53
List the two main benign tumors of the kidney
1. Renal papillary adenoma
(X) renal tumors are small (<5mm), present in (cortex/medulla) as pale yellow nodule with papillary growth pattern. If larger than (Y) size, they're re-classified as...
X = renal papillary adenoma
Y = 3 cm
RCC (due to malignant potential)
Oncocytoma: composed of (small/large) (eosinophilic/basophilic) cells thought to arise from the (X) cells.
X = interacalated cells of collecting duct
Oncocytoma: (X) color and can grow up to (Y).
X = mahogany-brown
Y = 12 cm
Pt has renal mass resected that shows numerous mitochondria on EM. Which type of tumor is this a characteristic of?
Aside from the most common malignant renal tumor, (X), which other malignant tumors can arise in kidney? Star the one with the best prognosis.
X = CCRC carcinoma (80%)
1. Papillary carcinoma
2. Chromophobe renal carcinoma*