05b: Urinary tract/Kidney Flashcards Preview

Oncology > 05b: Urinary tract/Kidney > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05b: Urinary tract/Kidney Deck (46)
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31

Bladder cancer: (X) is the major risk factor and is responsible for (Y)% of cases

X = smoking (4x risk)
Y = 50

32

Chronic inflammation, such as in (X) conditions, increases risk of which urothelial cancers?

X = catheter or schistosomiasis

Squamous and transitional cell carcinomas of bladder

33

Which drug causes 9x increased risk of bladder cancer?

Cyclophosphamide

34

Bladder cancer: T1 involves (X) layer. T2 involves (Y) layer. T3 involves (Z) layer.

X = mucosa
Y = mucosa and muscularis
Z = mucosa, muscularis, and fat

35

Bladder cancer: Rx and prognosis for stage T1

TUR (Transurethral resection)
Good prognosis, but can recur

36

Bladder cancer: Rx and prognosis for stage T2

Cystectomy
60% 5y survival

37

Bladder cancer: prognosis for stage T3

10% 5y survival

38

Bladder cancer can be identified early with thorough work-up of (X) patients that present with (Y)

x = >40 years old
Y = hematuria (evaluate by cytoscopy)

39

Bladder cancer: Deletion of (X) is an early event. Deletion of (Y) happens later and has been linked to poorer prognosis.

X = chromosome 9q
Y = Rb and p53

40

List the two main benign tumors of the kidney

1. Renal papillary adenoma
2. Oncocytoma

41

(X) renal tumors are small (<5mm), present in (cortex/medulla) as pale yellow nodule with papillary growth pattern. If larger than (Y) size, they're re-classified as...

X = renal papillary adenoma
Cortex
Y = 3 cm
RCC (due to malignant potential)

42

Oncocytoma: composed of (small/large) (eosinophilic/basophilic) cells thought to arise from the (X) cells.

Large; eosinophilic
X = interacalated cells of collecting duct

43

Oncocytoma: (X) color and can grow up to (Y).

X = mahogany-brown
Y = 12 cm

44

Pt has renal mass resected that shows numerous mitochondria on EM. Which type of tumor is this a characteristic of?

Oncocytoma

45

Aside from the most common malignant renal tumor, (X), which other malignant tumors can arise in kidney? Star the one with the best prognosis.

X = CCRC carcinoma (80%)

1. Papillary carcinoma
2. Chromophobe renal carcinoma*

46

Characteristic chromosomal abnormalities of CCRC largely involve chromosome (X).

X = 3
loss of the short arm of chromosome 3 or translocations involving chromosome 3