1) General Organisation of Head & Neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1) General Organisation of Head & Neck Deck (38):
1

What are the palpable features of the anterior neck?

Hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

2

What is the function of the thyroid and cricoid cartilage?

Support and protect underlying larynx

3

What muscles attach at the hyoid bone?

Supra and infra-hyoid muscles

4

What are the three main muscles of the neck?

Platysma
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius

5

Describe the position of platysma:

Anterolateral neck, superficial
Overlies sternocleidomastoid

6

What is the function of platysma?

Draws corners of mouth inferiorly
Draws skin of neck superiorly

7

What is the nerve supply to platysma?

Facial nerve

8

What are the functions of sternocleidomastoid?

Lateral flexion of neck, rotates chin superiorly
Together: flex neck and extend at atlanto-occipital joint

9

What is the nerve supply to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?

Accessory nerve

10

What is the function of trapezius?
(in terms of the neck)

Elevates and rotates scapula - shrug shoulders

11

What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?

Inferior margin of mandible
Anterior margin of SCM
Midline of neck

12

What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck?

Posterior margin of SCM
Anterior margin of trapezius
Clavicle

13

Why are the anatomical triangles of the neck important?

Defining pathology as different structures e.g. LN chains run in the triangles

14

What are the functions of cervical fascia?

Form natural planes
Allows ease of movement between structure e.g. when swallowing
Contains spread of infection

15

What does the superficial cervical fascia contain?
What type of connective tissue is it?

Loose CT containing fat, platysma, cutaneous nerves, lymph nodes and superficial blood vessels

16

What are the layers of deep cervical fascia?

Investing layer
Carotid sheath
Pre-tracheal fascia
Pre-vertebral fascia

17

What are the two layers of the pre-tracheal fascia?

Muscular and visceral

18

How can you tell if a swelling in the neck is a goitre?

Will move upon swallowing

19

What are the complications of a goitre?

Compress trachea: breathlessness and stridor
Compress veins: facial oedema

20

What is contained in the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery, internal jugular vein and vagus nerve

21

What does the pre-vertebral layer surround?

Vertebral column and associated muscles

22

What is the clinical significance of the retropharyngeal space?

Allows infection to spread into the mediastinum = mediastinitis

23

Which other space runs into the thorax?

Pre-tracheal space

24

What fascia splits the retropharyngeal space into two?
What is the posterior area called?

Alar fascia
Danger space

25

What are the three key branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular

26

What cranial nerves are the trigeminal and facial nerve?

Cranial nerve V and cranial nerve VII respectively

27

What does the trigeminal nerve innervate?

Muscles of mastication
Main sensory to face and scalp

28

What are the five key branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical

29

What does the facial nerve innervate?

Muscles of facial expression
Special sensory to tongue-taste, PSNS to salivary and lacrimal glands

30

What is the main arterial supply to the face?

Common carotid via internal and external carotid (facial artery)

31

What is the main venous drainage of the face?

Internal jugular via facial vein

32

Give examples of the muscles of mastication:

Temporalis
Masseter
Pterygoids (lateral and medial)

33

Give examples of the muscles of facial expression:

Orbicularis oculi
Levator palpebrae superioris
Occipitofrontalis
Buccinator
Zygomaticus
Orbicularis oris

34

What is the danger area of the scalp and what does this mean?

Loose CT, allows spread of infection to meninges

35

What is the arterial supply to the scalp? (broad)

External carotid and ophthalmic arteries

36

What is the nerve supply to the scalp? (broad)

Trigeminal and cervical nerves

37

Why do scalp lacerations bleed profusely?

Pull of occipitofrontalis prevents closure of bleeding vessels and skin
Vasoconstriction prevented by adherence of blood vessels to dense CT
Many anastomoses

38

What is the clinical significance of the path of the facial nerve?

Passes through parotid gland where it can be damaged e.g. tumour or surgery