5) Lymphatic Drainage Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5) Lymphatic Drainage Deck (29):
1

What does the lymphatic system consist of?

Lymph nodes
Lymphoid organs - spleen, thymus, tonsils
Drainage vessels
Lymph (fluid)

2

Where is the lymphatic system absent?

Eyeball, inner ear and cartilage

3

Describe the formation of lymph:

Tissue fluid forced out of capillary due to high hydrostatic pressure. Not all tissue fluid is reabsorbed and remaining fluid moving into lymph vessels is called lymph

4

What does lymph consist of?

Tissue fluid, small proteins, lipids, damaged cells, bacteria (+cancer cells)

5

How much lymphatic fluid is produced per day?

3-4L

6

What are the features of lymphatic flow?

Unidirectional, low pressure and no central pump

7

Describe lymphatic flow from capillaries to ducts:

Lymph capillaries -> lymph vessels (afferent) -> node -> efferent vessel (one) -> lymphatic trunks -> lymphatic ducts

8

What causes lymph flow to remain unidirectional?

Unidirectional drainage at capillary
Valves so no backflow
Passive constriction due to pulsation of artery or muscle contraction
Intrinsic constriction by SMCs

9

Where does the lymph system drain into?

Subclavian veins

10

Which duct drains more lymph?

Left (thoracic) duct

11

What is lymphoedema?

Abnormal collection of protein-rich fluid causing tissue swelling due to compromised lymphatic system

12

What are some causes of lymphoedema?

Removal/enlargement of LNs (after cancer treatment)
Infections
Damage to lymph system
Lack of limb movement
Congenital e.g. McIlroy's

13

Name a cause of pitting and non-pitting oedema:

Pitting - heart failure
Non-pitting - lymphoedema

14

What are lymph nodes?

Connective tissue structures with tough outer capsule and reticular CT inside

15

What are contained within lymph nodes?

Large collections of lymphocytes and macrophages

16

What is the clinical term used to describe swollen lymph nodes?

Lymphadenopathy

17

What causes swollen LNs?

Infection
Malignancy

18

How can lymph nodes be classified?

Regional - superficial, draining specific area
Terminal - deep

19

Where can lymph nodes be palpated?

Neck (cervical)
Armpit (axillary)
Diaphragm
Spleen
Abdominal
Pelvic
Groin

20

What are cervical regional and terminal lymph nodes separated by?

Investing layer of deep cervical fascia

21

Give examples of the superficial cervical lymph nodes:

Submental, submandibular, pre and post auricular, occipital, superficial cervical, anterior cervical and posterior cervical

22

What is Waldeyer's ring?

Annular collection of lymphatic tissues (nodules) surrounding superior pharynx
Pharyngeal tonsil, 2 palantine tonsils and 2 lingual tonsils

23

What are the names of the deep cervical lymph nodes?

Jugulo-digastric, jugulo-omohyoid and supra-clavicular

24

What does the jugulo-digastric LN drain?

Behind mandible and drains palatine tonsil and tongue
Swollen in tonsillitis

25

What does the jugulo-omohyoid LN drain?

Drains tongue, oral cavity, trachea, oesophagus and thyroid

26

What does the supra-clavicular LN drain?

Thoracic cavity and abdomen

27

What are important signs seen in supra-clavicular LNs?

Both on left:
Virchow's - abdomen and thorax malignancy
Trosier's sign - metastatic abdominal malignancy

28

What do swollen LNs caused by infection feel like?

Tender and mobile

29

What do swollen LNs caused by malignancy feel like?

Hard, matted and non-tender