2) Osteology and Radiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2) Osteology and Radiology Deck (38):
1

What can the cranium be split up into?

Neurocranium - housing brain
Viscerocranium - facial skeleton

2

What does the neurocranium consist of?

Calvaria (roof) and base of skull

3

What bones form the calvarium?

Frontal, occipital and two parietal bones

4

What bones form the cranial base?

Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, occipital, parietal and temporal bones

5

How are the bones of the calvaria arranged?
And why?

Tri lamina arrangement, two layers of compact bone separated by layer of spongy bone (diploe)
Conveys strength without adding significant weight

6

Give examples of bones in the facial skeleton:

Zygomatic, maxilla, mandible,. lacrimal, nasal, sphenoid, vomer and palatine bone

7

What are the two types of joint in the skull?
Give an example of each

Immobile: joined by fibrous tissue e.g. sutures
Mobile: only one, temporomandibular joint

8

Give examples of sutures in the skull:

Coronal: between parietal and frontal
Squamous: temporal and parietal
Sagittal: between parietal bones
Lambdoid: between parital and occipital

9

What happens to the sutures as we age?

Ossify

10

What are fontanelles?

Membranous areas of unfused skull in babies

11

What is the function of fontanelles?

Allow for brain growth and flexibility eases passage through birth canal

12

What are the names of the fused anterior and posterior fontanelles?

Bregma
Lambda

13

What is the significance of sunken fontanelles?

Dehydration or malnutrition

14

What is the significance of bulging fontanelles?

Raised intracranial pressure or meningitis

15

What is the significance of enlarged fontanelles?

Premature birth or Down's syndrome

16

What is the pterion?

Lateral aspect of skull where temporal, parietal, frontal and sphenoid bones meet. Thinnest part of skull

17

What can a fracture at the pterion lead to?

Injury of anterior branch of middle meningeal artery causing extradural haematoma

18

Why is it called an extradural haematoma?

Blood vessels run between periosteum and dura mater so dura is pushed away from bone by blood and pressure exerted on brain

19

What are the 3 areas of the cranial floor?

Anterior, middle and posterior floor

20

What allows neurovascular structures to pass into cranial compartment?

Foramina of cranial floor

21

What causes skull fractures?

Severe trauma, blows/impact injury

22

What are the consequences of skull fractures?

Damage underlying brain, blood vessels or cause intracranial haematoma

23

What is the primary investigation used in suspected skull fractures?

CT scan

24

What causes basilar skull fractures?

Force transmitted through vertebral column

25

What suggestive signs of a basilar skull fracture?

Battle's sign - bruising of mastoid process
Raccoon eyes - bilateral bruising around eyes
Haemotympanum - blood behind ear drum
CSF leakage from nose and ear

26

What are the complications of basilar skull fractures?

Meningeal tears
Cranial nerve palsies
Meningitis

27

What causes facial skeleton fractures?

Road traffic collisions, fights and falls

28

What bones of the facial skeleton are commonly fractured?

Nasal, zygomatic and mandible

29

If a patient has a suspected neck injury, what should be done?

Spinal immobilisation

30

What investigations can confirm a spinal fracture in adults and children?

CT in adult
X-ray/MRI in children

31

What is a Jefferson's fracture and what causes it?

Burst fracture of C1, combination of anterior and posterior arch fractures. Caused by axial compression

32

What is a Hangman's fracture and what causes it?

Bilateral fracture of posterior arch of C2 and disruption of C2/3 junction. Caused by hyperextension of neck

33

What are the complications of Hangman's fractures?

May extend to transverse foramen and damage vertebral arteries
C2 may displace causing spinal cord damage

34

What are vertebral crush fractures and what causes them?

Fractures of vertebral bodies causes by osteoporosis, hyperflexion and various others

35

What degenerative disease can affect the spine?

Osteoarthritis -> cervical spondylosis

36

What are the features of cervical spondylosis?

Osteophytes
Facet joint hypertrophy
Disc herniation
Disc space narrowing
Sclerosis of end plates

37

What is cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and what can it lead to?

Nerve root impingement
Dermatomal arm pain +/- mild weakness and sensory loss

38

What is cervical spondylotic myelopathy and what can it lead to?

Spinal cord compression
Loss of function and fine motor skills in upper limb