1.0 Immunology Flashcards Preview

MedST IB: Biology of Disease (BoD) > 1.0 Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.0 Immunology Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

What occurs in reversible injury?

1) Cell swelling
2) Fatty deposits

2

Apoptosis vs necrosis

"
"

3

Humoral vs cellular immunity

Humoral - antibody/complement mediated immunity
Cellular - T cells (+ cytokine release)

4

Innate vs adaptive immunity

"
"

5

What is the main haematopoietic organ?

Bone marrow

6

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

1) Bone marrow
2) Thymus

7

What are the secondary lymphoid organs?

1) Lymph node
2) Spleen

8

What are some lymphoid tissues?

1) Intestine
2) Tonsils (+ other mucous membranes)
3) Skin
4) Blood + lymph

9

What immune cells are lymphoid derived?

1) NK cells
2) B + T lymphocytes

10

What immune cells are myeloid derived?

Granulocytes
1) Neutrophils
2) Eosinophils
3) Basophils
4) Mast cells

Monocytes

Macrophages

11

What cells are the following CD proteins found on? (also what is their function?):

CD3
CD4
CD8
CD16
CD19
CD45
CD56

"
"

12

What concentrations do cytokines work at?

10⁻¹⁰ - 10⁻¹⁵ M

13

Name four families of cytokines:

1) Interleukins
2) Chemokines
3) TNF
4) Interferons

14

What characteristics do all cytokines share?

1) Pleiotropism
2) Redundancy
3) Antagonism
4) Synergism

15

What is FAS ligand?

(FasL/CD95)
Member of TNF family
Trimer that binds to FAS receptor (CD95)
Causes apoptosis

16

What is perforin?

Monomer (similar to C9)
Aggregates → forms pores → allows ingress of granzymes → starts caspase cascade

17

What are the three kinds of innate immune recognition?

1) PAMPs
2) DAMPs
3) Missing self

18

What are the characteristics of PAMPs?

1) Shared by different organism classes
2) Molecular constituents essential for survival
3) Highly conserved
4) Not present in vertebral hosts
5) Allow discrimination between self and non-self

19

Give examples of PAMPs for:
1) Bacteria
2) Yeast
3) Viruses
4) Parasites

"
"

20

Give 5 examples of PRRs:

1) Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
2) Lectins + scavenger proteins (MBL)
3) NOD + NOD-like receptors (NLRs)
4) RIG-like receptors (RLRs)
5) DNA receptors
6) Others (CRP)

21

What happens on activation of TLRs?

Activation → cytokine release → inflammation

Signal is via TIR domains
Activate NFkB, AP1 and IRF3 transcription factors

22

What are the ligands for the different TLRs?

"
"

23

What is the mechanism of TLR4 action?

"
"

24

How many types of NLRs are there in humans?

22

25

Where are NLRs located?

Cytoplasm

26

What are two subfamilies of NLRs?

1) NOD subfamily
2) NLRP subfamily

27

What do the NOD subfamily (of NLRs) cause on activation?

Activation → NFkB → inflammation

28

What proteins form the inflammasome complex?

1) NALP3
2) Caspase 1
3) ASC

29

Mechanism of inflammasome action:

1) PAMP is recognised → complex formation
2) NALP3 activates caspase 1
3) Caspase 1 converts proIL-1β → IL-1β

IL-1β promotes inflammation

30

What are DAMPs?

Danger associated molecular pathogens

Molecules that initiate non-infectious immune response
Normal tissue can cause immune response if damaged by trauma/infection