9.0 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) II Flashcards Preview

MedST IB: Biology of Disease (BoD) > 9.0 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) II > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.0 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) II Deck (44)
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1

Concerning severe iron deficiency
A. red blood cells are enlarged 
B. only erythropoiesis is affected 
C. iron in vegetable produce is absorbed more efficiently than iron in animal produce 
D. men and women are equally effected commonly 
E. disease worsens in pregnancy 

Concerning severe iron deficiency
A. red blood cells are enlarged (FALSE)
B. only erythropoiesis is affected (FALSE)
C. iron in vegetable produce is absorbed more efficiently than iron in animal produce (FALSE)
D. men and women are equally effected commonly (FALSE)
E. disease worsens in pregnancy (TRUE)

2

The following are pro-thrombotic
A. Microparticles 
B. plasminogen activator inhibitors 
C. nitric oxide 
D. fibrin
E. Von Willebrand factor 

The following are pro-thrombotic
A. Microparticles (TRUE)
B. plasminogen activator inhibitors (TRUE)
C. nitric oxide (FALSE)
D. fibrin (TRUE)
E. Von Willebrand factor (TRUE)

3

In the development of an atherosclerotic plaque
A. endothelial cells are injured by oxidised lipoproteins 
B. smooth muscle cells secrete collagen 
C. endothelial cells are injured by laminar blood flow 
D. smooth muscle cells secrete collagenase
E. endothelial cell injury only occurs at arterial branch points 

In the development of an atherosclerotic plaque
A. endothelial cells are injured by oxidised lipoproteins (TRUE)
B. smooth muscle cells secrete collagen (TRUE)
C. endothelial cells are injured by laminar blood flow (FALSE)
D. smooth muscle cells secrete collagenase (TRUE)
E. endothelial cell injury only occurs at arterial branch points (FALSE)

4

The following statements are true
A. Bcl2 is a pro-survival protein 
B. P53 inactivates p21 
C. the APC gene is often mutated by frameshift mutations 
D. Bcr-Abl is formed as the consequence of a chromosomal inversion 
E. Ras proteins are activated by GTP hydrolysis 

The following statements are true
A. Bcl2 is a pro-survival protein (TRUE)
B. P53 inactivates p21 (FALSE)
C. the APC gene is often mutated by frameshift mutations (FALSE)
D. Bcr-Abl is formed as the consequence of a chromosomal inversion (TRUE)
E. Ras proteins are activated by GTP hydrolysis (FALSE)

5

Concerning neoplasia
A. leiomyosarcoma is a benign tumour arising from muscle 
B. an adenoma is a benign tumour of glandular epithelium
C. leukemia is a malignancy
D. adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a benign neoplasm
E. benign tumours are never fatal

Concerning neoplasia
A. leiomyosarcoma is a benign tumour arising from muscle (FALSE)
B. an adenoma is a benign tumour of glandular epithelium (TRUE)
C. leukemia is a malignancy (TRUE)
D. adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a benign neoplasm (FALSE)
E. benign tumours are never fatal (FALSE)

6

Concerning oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes
A. silencing of tumour suppressor genes can occur via RNA methylation 
B. inactivation of Rb often occurs via chromosomal rearrangements 
C. in general, oncogenes require bi-allelic activation 
D. mutations in DNA polymerases are an occasional source of genetic instability 
E. the p53 gene is mutated in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome 

Concerning oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes
A. silencing of tumour suppressor genes can occur via RNA methylation (FALSE)
B. inactivation of Rb often occurs via chromosomal rearrangements (FALSE)
C. in general, oncogenes require bi-allelic activation (FALSE)
D. mutations in DNA polymerases are an occasional source of genetic instability (TRUE)
E. the p53 gene is mutated in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (TRUE)

7

In cell cycle control
A. P16INK4a is a tumour suppressor gene 
B. Rb promotes G1/S transition 
C. phosphorylation of Rb is mediated by CDK4 
D. overactivation of cyclin D1 inhibits cell cycle progression 
E. P21 inhibits the cyclinD1/CDK4 complex 

In cell cycle control
A. P16INK4a is a tumour suppressor gene (TRUE)
B. Rb promotes G1/S transition (FALSE)
C. phosphorylation of Rb is mediated by CDK4 (TRUE)
D. overactivation of cyclin D1 inhibits cell cycle progression (FALSE)
E. P21 inhibits the cyclinD1/CDK4 complex (TRUE)

8

Regarding DNA damage repair
A. failure of mismatch repair/microsatellite instability occurs in some sporadic colon cancers 
B. inactivation of MLH1 is often via methylation of its promoter 
C. BRACA1 prepares single strand ends for base paring to the other helix
D. defects in cell cycle checkpoints can contribute to genetic instability 
E. DNA breaks are repaired by the homologous recombination or mismatch repair pathway 

Regarding DNA damage repair
A. failure of mismatch repair/microsatellite instability occurs in some sporadic colon cancers (TRUE)
B. inactivation of MLH1 is often via methylation of its promoter (TRUE)
C. BRACA1 prepares single strand ends for base paring to the other helix (FALSE)
D. defects in cell cycle checkpoints can contribute to genetic instability (TRUE)
E. DNA breaks are repaired by the homologous recombination or mismatch repair pathway (FALSE)

9

Concerning carcinogenic agents
A. they can be identified by an Ames test 
B. all carcinogens are also mutagens 
C. naphthylamine exposure is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer 
D. asbestos exposure is linked to the development of mesothelioma, a cancer of adrenal tissue 
E. UV light causes C to A transitions 

Concerning carcinogenic agents
A. they can be identified by an Ames test (TRUE)
B. all carcinogens are also mutagens (FALSE)
C. naphthylamine exposure is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (TRUE)
D. asbestos exposure is linked to the development of mesothelioma, a cancer of adrenal tissue (FALSE)
E. UV light causes C to A transitions (FALSE)

10

With respect to infectious agents and cancer
A. Helicobacter pylori induces genomic instability 
B. vaccination against HPV16/18 prevents cervical cancer 
C. EBV is associated with the development of cancer in immunosuppressed individuals 
D. Schistosoma haematobium is associated with colon cancer in humans 
E. Kaposi’s sarcoma is a common problem in AIDS/HIV patients and is caused by HTLV-1 

With respect to infectious agents and cancer
A. Helicobacter pylori induces genomic instability (TRUE)
B. vaccination against HPV16/18 prevents cervical cancer (TRUE)
C. EBV is associated with the development of cancer in immunosuppressed individuals (TRUE)
D. Schistosoma haematobium is associated with colon cancer in humans (FALSE)
E. Kaposi’s sarcoma is a common problem in AIDS/HIV patients and is caused by HTLV-1 (FALSE)

11

Which statement is TRUE?
A. Only malignant, rather than benign tumours can cause death
B. Dysplasia is the change from one cell type to another in response to a stimulus
C. A key feature of benign tumours is their ability to metastasise
D. A lipoma is a benign tumour
E. Leiomyosarcoma is a benign tumour

D. A lipoma is a benign tumour

12

Which statement about bacterial cells is FALSE?
A. They do not undergo meiosis
B. They have unstable genomes
C. They divide by binary fission
D. They have an extensive cytoskeleton
E. They are often polycistronic 

D. They have an extensive cytoskeleton 

13

Which statement is FALSE?
A. The outer membrane of bacterial cell walls contains porins
B. Haemophilus influenzae has a polysaccharide capsule
C. Transposons are carried by plasmids
D. Vibrio cholera has a curved rod shape
E. Lipid A is highly variable

E. Lipid A is highly variable

14

What statement is TRUE?
A. Vancomycin binds the 30S ribosomal subunit
B. Tetracycline binds 50S ribosomal subunit
C. Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
D. Chloramphenicol inhibits peptidyl transferase activity
E. Fluoroquinolones alter 16S rRNA in the 30S subunit 

C. Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

15

Which statement about Mycobacterium tuberculosis is FALSE?
A. TB causes caseating granulomas
B. TB inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion
C. TB secretes SMAD4 protein to downregulate reactive oxygen species
D. The tuberculin skin test assesses CD4+ T-cell response
E. It is ‘acid-fast’ on gram staining 

C. TB secretes SMAD4 protein to downregulate reactive oxygen species

16

Which state about bacteria toxins is INCORRECT?
A. Shiga toxin is an adenylate cyclase
B. C. difficile toxin glycosylates GTPases
C. Cytotoxic necrotising factors are deamidases
D. Botulinum toxin result in a flaccid paralysis
E. Superantigens bridge MHC Class II molecules 

A. Shiga toxin is an adenylate cyclase

17

Which statement about Chlamydia is TRUE?
A. Chlamydia in an extracellular bacteria
B. Its reticulate body cannot replicate
C. It can cause trachoma
D. Chlamydia has a larger genome than Salmonella
E. It’s elementary body has a high metabolic activity 

C. It can cause trachoma

18

Which statement about Streptococcus pyogenes is TRUE?
A. Its causes necrotising fasciitis
B. M protein binds C5a
C. It is Gram negative cocci
D. Streptolysins lyses clots
E. It is a Lancefield Group B pathogen 

A. Its causes necrotising fasciitis

19

"
Which statement about Cholera is TRUE?
A. The toxin structure is A5B
B. The toxin causes reduced levels of cAMP
C. Cholera binds to Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor (HB-EGF) on the cell surface
D. Cholera toxin acts on G-proteins (GαS)
E. Vibrio cholera colonises the colon 
"

D. Cholera toxin acts on G-proteins (GαS)

20

What statement is INCORRECT?
A. Haemophilus influenzae is a gram positive rod
B. Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative and helically shaped
C. Neisseria meningitidis is a gram negative coccus
D. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram positive coccus
E. E.coli is a gram negative rod 

A. Haemophilus influenzae is a gram positive rod

21

Regarding Toxoplasma gondii, the following are correct, EXCEPT
A. The cat is the definitive host
B. They are unicellular organisms
C. It is an obligate intracellular parasite
D. Human are the only intermediate host
E. Produces flu-like symptoms in healthy individuals 

D. Human are the only intermediate host 

22

Regarding Malaria, which statement is INCORRECT?
A. It is transmitted by Anopheles mosquito
B. P. ovale causes the greatest proportion of cases
C. Sporozoites infect hepatocytes
D. Merozoites infect red blood cells
E. The oocyst releases sporozoites 

B. P. ovale causes the greatest proportion of cases

23

Which of the following is NOT a feature of reversible cell injury?
A. Nuclear chromatin clumping
B. Loss of cristae
C. Lysosome rupture
D. Lipid vacuoles
E. Plasma membrane blebbing

C. Lysosome rupture

24

Which of these is NOT a feature of infarcts?
A. Histological changes occur within 30 minutes
B. Myocardial infarcts are described as pale infarcts
C. The infarction is replaced by scar tissue
D. Haemorrhage can be an early feature of infarcts
E. The brain shows liquefactive necrosis 

A. Histological changes occur within 30 minutes

25

Which of the following is CORRECT?
A. Poikilocytosis is never a feature of iron deficiency anaemia
B. Hereditary spherocytosis is an extravascular haemolytic anaemia
C. Erythrocytes are hypochromic in iron deficiency anaemia
D. A peptic ulcer classically results in megaloblastic anaemia
E. The intrinsic receptor is in the proximal duodenum

C. Erythrocytes are hypochromic in iron deficiency anaemia

26

Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding atherosclerosis?
A. Collagenase is secreted to assist with matrix remodelling
B. Reactive oxygen species active vascular smooth muscle cells
C. Smooth muscle cells migrate but do not change their phenotype
D. Following activation, smooth muscle cells proliferate
E. Endothelial cell injury is the initiator of atherosclerosis 

C. Smooth muscle cells migrate but do not change their phenotype

27

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
A. Thrombi in veins contain Line of Zahn (laminations)
B. Cigarette smoking is not a risk factor for thrombosis
C. Immobilisation is not a risk factor for thrombosis
D. Monocytes/macrophages are involved in the organisation of thrombi
E. Thrombi are soft and jelly-like in substance

D. Monocytes/macrophages are involved in the organisation of thrombi

28

Which definition is INCORRECT?
A. Poikilocytosis; abnormal variation in cell shape
B. Reticulocyte; nucleated red cell precursor
C. Normoblast; nucleated red cell precursor
D. Megaloblast; abnormally large red cell precursor
E. Anisocytosis; abnormal variations in size 

B. Reticulocyte; nucleated red cell precursor

29

Regarding HIV, which statement is CORRECT?
A. The HIV capsid is spherical
B. HIV-1 is less virulent than HIV-2
C. A long terminal repeat is only present at the N-terminus of the provirus genome
D. gp120 is heavily glycosylated
E. Homozygotes with a 32bp deletion of CCR5 cannot be infected with HIV

D. gp120 is heavily glycosylated 

30

Regarding the influenza virus, which statement is INCORRECT?
A. Antigenic drift refers to haemagglutinin amino acid mutations
B. The HA molecule is a trimer
C. The M2 protein is found in the virion core
D. Avian haemagglutinin prefers α 2’-3’ linkage between sialic acid and galactosidase
E. Neuraminidase cleaves sialic acid 

C. The M2 protein is found in the virion core