10.2 - Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

ESA 5 - Pharmacology > 10.2 - Chemotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10.2 - Chemotherapy Deck (16):
1

What are the 5 types?

alkylating agents, anti-metabolites, spindle poisons, bleomycin, anthracycline antibiotics

2

How do alkylating agents work?

Forms covalent bonds intrastrand or
interstrand between DNA strands

3

Name the 2 anti-metabolites. How do the 2 anti-metabolites work?

5-FU - Inhibits thymidylate synthase, Needed to form pyramidines
Methotrexate - Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, needed to form purines and thymine

4

Name some ADRs

myelosuppression, weight loss, N&V, cardiotoxicity, alopecia, sepsis

5

What are the 3 methods in which resistance can arise in a tumour?

Decreased entry or exit of agent, Enhanced repair of DNA lesions, inactivation of agent in cell

6

Give an example alkylating agent.

cisplatin

7

How do spindle poisons work?

Affects the microtubular structure
of spindle fibre formation Either by Inhibit their formation (vinca alkaloids) or by Causing excessive polymerisation (taxanes)

8

How do you administer chemo?

In doses to allow bone marrow to recover

9

How do you monitor chemotherapy?

Tumour marker blood test, bone marrow testing, radiological imaging

10

Give example spindle poisions

taxane - paclitaxel
Vinca alkaloid - vincristine, vinblastine

11

How does bleomycin work?

Produces superoxide and hydroxde free radicals

12

Give 2 example anthracycline antibiotic

doxorubicin, daunorubicin

13

How do anthracycline antibiotics work?

Intercalates between spaces between DNA base pairs which stops normal replication and generates free radicals - triggers apoptosis

14

How can a cell increase the exit of a chemo drug?

Expression of MDRP

15

How can a cell decrease entry of a chemo drug?

Downregulation of active carrier

16

What is the log kill ratio?

Number of cancer cells killed given in 10^x