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Flashcards in 11. Heart Failure Deck (15)
1

What happens to Starling's law as cardiac failure becomes worse?

The heart no longer produces the same amount of force for a given level of filling

2

A patient complains of shortness of breath, a fast heart rate and fatigue on rest, what class of cardiac failure do you suspect he has?

Class 4 (the worst)

3

What is cardiac failure of both ventricles known as?

Congestive heart failure

4

What is the most common cause of right sided heart failure?

Secondary to left sided failure

5

When is shortness of breath worst in people suffering from left heart failure?

When laying down

6

Why can right sided heart failure lead to pitting at the ankles?

Right sided failure leads to increase in venous pressure
This leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure at the venous end of s capillary bed
Hydrostatic pressure is now much greater than oncotic so water leaves causing peripheral oedema

7

What does renin do?

Catalyses angiotensin to angiotensin I

8

Where is renin released from?

Kidneys

9

What is ACE?

Converts angiontensin I to angiotensin II

10

What does angiotensin II do?

Vasoconstriction
Causes aldosterone release leading to water retention

11

What activates the renin angiotensin aldosterone system?

Hypotension in cardiac failure

12

Where are baroreceptors located?

Aortic arch
Carotid sinus

13

Hypotension detected by baroreceptors leads to what?

Medulla in brain activating sympathetic nervous response
Vasoconstriction via alpha 1 receptors (increases blood pressure hence increases preload and after load)
Activates the heart's beta 1 receptors causing an increase in inotropy and chronotropy

14

What effect do ACE inhibitors have?

Vasodilatory and diuretic affect which lowers workload of the heart

15

Define heart failure

A state in which the heart fails to maintain adequate circulation for the body despite having adequate filling pressure