Flashcards in 3. Congenital Heart Defects Deck (20)
What is a cyanotic defect?
Defect that causes right to left shunting of blood hence there is mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood in the systemic circulation
Is an atrial septal defect cyanotic or acyanotic?
What is a patent foramen ovale?
Where the foramen ovale remains open instead of becoming the fossa ovalis
If there is a transient pressure increase on the right hand side of the heart of a patient with a patent foramen ovale what can occur?
What is a ventricular septal defect and what portion is it most likely to occur at?
Opening in the interventricular septum
Most common in the membranous portion
Are ventricular septum defects cyanotic?
No, they are acyanotic
What is a patent ductus arteriosus?
Where the ductus arteriosus fails to close (forming the ligamentum arteriosus) which allows blood to pass from the aorta to the pulmonary artery
What can be heard in a patient with patent ductus arteriosus?
Mechanical murmur constantly through systole and diastole
Is patent ductus arteriosus a cyanotic defect?
No, it is acyanotic
What is Eisenmenger syndrome?
Where chronic left to right shunting of a PDA, ASD or VSD causes increased flow through pulmonary vasculature.
This leads to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.
This in turn increases pressures in the right side of the heart and reverses the shunt, causing a once acyanotic defect to become cyanotic.
What is coarction of the aorta?
Narrowing of the aortic lumen in the region of the ligamentum arteriosum
What can coarction of the aorta lead to?
Left ventricle hypertrophy due to increased after load
Upper body hypertension and lower body hypotension due to where the coarction is
How can a coarction of the aorta be recognised?
Weak femoral pulse
Is coarction of the aorta cyanotic?
No, is is acyanotic
What is an atrial septal defect?
Opening in the septum between the two atria
What are the 4 defects in tetralogy of fallot?
Right ventricular hypertrophy
What is tricuspid atresia?
Lack of development of the tricuspid valve
What other defects must occur with tricuspid atresia for the foetus to be sustainable with life?
As blood cannot flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle
What is transposition of the great vessels?
Where the aorta is connected to the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery to the left ventricle leading to two parallel circulations.
Requires another shunt to be compatible with life