3. Congenital Heart Defects Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular System > 3. Congenital Heart Defects > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Congenital Heart Defects Deck (20)
1

What is a cyanotic defect?

Defect that causes right to left shunting of blood hence there is mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood in the systemic circulation

2

Is an atrial septal defect cyanotic or acyanotic?

Acyanotic

3

What is a patent foramen ovale?

Where the foramen ovale remains open instead of becoming the fossa ovalis

4

If there is a transient pressure increase on the right hand side of the heart of a patient with a patent foramen ovale what can occur?

Paradoxical embolism

5

What is a ventricular septal defect and what portion is it most likely to occur at?

Opening in the interventricular septum
Most common in the membranous portion

6

Are ventricular septum defects cyanotic?

No, they are acyanotic

7

What is a patent ductus arteriosus?

Where the ductus arteriosus fails to close (forming the ligamentum arteriosus) which allows blood to pass from the aorta to the pulmonary artery

8

What can be heard in a patient with patent ductus arteriosus?

Mechanical murmur constantly through systole and diastole

9

Is patent ductus arteriosus a cyanotic defect?

No, it is acyanotic

10

What is Eisenmenger syndrome?

Where chronic left to right shunting of a PDA, ASD or VSD causes increased flow through pulmonary vasculature.
This leads to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.
This in turn increases pressures in the right side of the heart and reverses the shunt, causing a once acyanotic defect to become cyanotic.

11

What is coarction of the aorta?

Narrowing of the aortic lumen in the region of the ligamentum arteriosum

12

What can coarction of the aorta lead to?

Left ventricle hypertrophy due to increased after load
Upper body hypertension and lower body hypotension due to where the coarction is

13

How can a coarction of the aorta be recognised?

Weak femoral pulse

14

Is coarction of the aorta cyanotic?

No, is is acyanotic

15

What is an atrial septal defect?

Opening in the septum between the two atria

16

What are the 4 defects in tetralogy of fallot?

VSD
Overriding aorta
Pulmonary stenosis
Right ventricular hypertrophy

17

What is tricuspid atresia?

Lack of development of the tricuspid valve

18

What other defects must occur with tricuspid atresia for the foetus to be sustainable with life?

ASD/PFO
VSD

As blood cannot flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle

19

What is transposition of the great vessels?

Where the aorta is connected to the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery to the left ventricle leading to two parallel circulations.

Requires another shunt to be compatible with life

20

What is hypoplastic left heart?

Left ventricle and aorta fail to develop

Need a PFO/ASD and PDA. Requires surgery.