Acute Inflammatory Airway Obstruction Flashcards Preview

Nelson - Respiratory System > Acute Inflammatory Airway Obstruction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Inflammatory Airway Obstruction Deck (37):
1

Defines the narrowest portion of the upper airways in children <10 yrs

Cricoid cartilage

2

Bark-like or brassy cough

Croup

3

Harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound which is usually inspiratory but can be biphasic

Stridor

4

Most acute infections of the upper airway are caused by ___ with the exception of diphtheria, bacterial tracheitis, and epiglottitis

Viruses

5

Account for ~75% of infectious upper airway obstruction

Parainfluenza

6

Croup peaks at what age

2 y/o

7

Croup is aka

Laryngotracheobronchitis

8

MCC of pediatric epiglottitis in vaccinated children

S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus; Hib has been reduced due to vaccination

9

MCC of croup

Viruses

10

MC form of upper airway osbtruction

Croup

11

Barking cough, hoarseness, inspiratory stridor

Croup

12

T/F Symptoms of croup are worse at night

T

13

T/F Croup is a clinical diagnosis and does not require a radiograph of the neck

T

14

Radiographs of the neck in croup can show the typical ___

Subglottic narrowing or steeple sign

15

Accepted treatment for moderate to severe croup which causes constriction of the precapillary arterioles through β-adrenergic receptors, causing fluid resorption and decreased edema

Nebulized racemic epinephrine

16

T/F Effectiveness of oral corticosteroids in viral croup is well-established

T

17

Upper airway obstruction: Drooling with hyperextended neck in an attempt to maintain the airway

Acute epiglottitis

18

Upper airway obstruction: Tripod position

Acute epiglottitis

19

Upper airway obstruction: Stridor is a late finding

Acute epiglottitis

20

T/F In acute epiglottitis, no other family members are ill with acute respiratory symptoms

T

21

Upper airway obstruction: Cherry red epiglottis

Acute epiglottitis

22

T/F Diagnosis of acute epiglottitis REQUIRES visualization of a large cherry red swollen epiglottis by laryngoscopy

T

23

Classic radiographic picture of child who has epiglottitis

Thumb sign

24

T/F Establishing an airway is indicated in patients with epiglottitis regardless of degree of apparent respiratory distress

T

25

Reason why it is necessary to establish an airway in epiglottitis regardless of degree of respiratory distress

As many as 6% of children without an artificial airway die compared to <1% with artificial airway

26

T/F Children with epiglottitis are intubated for 2-3 days because response to antibiotics is usually rapid

T

27

Choices for empiric therapy of epiglottitis

IV Ceftri, Cefotax, Merop (BECAUSE 10-40% of Hib are resistant to Ampicillin)

28

Indications for household members prophylaxis in cases of epiglottitis

1) <48 months of age incompletely immunized 2) <12 months with no primary vaccination series 3) Immunocompromised child

29

Medication used for prophylaxis in cases of epiglottitis

Rifampin

30

MCC of acute infectious laryngitis

Virus

31

Upper airway obstruction: Hoarseness and loss of voice may be out of proportion to systemic signs and symptoms

Acute infectious laryngitis

32

MC isolated pathogen in bacterial tracheitis

S. aureus

33

T/F Bacterial tracheitis often follows a viral respiratory infection

T

34

Upper airway obstruction: Brassy cough, high fever, and "toxicity" with respiratory distress immediately or after a few days of apparent improvement

Bacterial tracheitis

35

Most important ddx for acute infectious laryngitis

Bacterial tracheitis

36

MC complication of acute infectious laryngitis

Extension of infectious process to involve other regions of the respiratory tract including the middle ear, terminal bronchioles, or pulmonary parenchyma

37

Major pathologic feature of bacterial tracheitis

Mucosal swelling at the level of the cricoid cartilage