Pleurisy, Pleural Effusions, and Empyema Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pleurisy, Pleural Effusions, and Empyema Deck (50)
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1

What is pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleura

2

MC cause of pleural effusion in children

Bacterial pneumonia

3

Most common causes of pleural effusion in children second to bacterial pneumonia

1) Heart failure 2) Rheumatologic 3) Metastatic intrathoracic malignancy

4

Inflammatory processes in the pleura are divided into 3

1) Dry or plastic 2) Serofibrinous or serosanguinous 3) Purulent pleurisy or empyema

5

Etiologies of dry/plastic pleurisy

1) Bacterial or viral pulmonary infection 2) Acute URTI 3) Tb 4) Connective tissue disease (e.g. RF)

6

Principal symptom of dry/plastic pleurisy

Pain

7

In dry/plastic pleurisy, the child often lies on which side relative to the affected side

ON the affected side in an attempt to decrease respiratory excursions

8

A leathery, rough, inspiratory and expiratory friction rub may be heard in which phase of illness in cases of dry/plastic pleurisy

Early or late

9

T/F Patients with pleurisy and pneumonia should always be screened for Tb

T

10

T/F In pneumonia with pleural effusion, immobilization of the chest and cough suppressive drugs are indicated

F

11

T/F In pleural effusion without pneumonia, strapping of the chest to restrict expansion may afford relief

T

12

Which type of pleurisy is associated with inflammatory conditions of the abdomen or mediastinum

Serofibrinous/serosanguinous

13

Type of pleurisy associated with primary or metastatic neoplasms of the lung, pleura, or mediastinum

Serofibrinous/serosanguinous

14

Hemorrhagic pleurisy are usually associated with what condition

Tumors

15

Pleural fluid usually come from

Capillaries of the parietal pleura

16

Pleural fluid is absorbed by what structures

Pleural stomas and lymphatics of the parietal pleura

17

The rate of pleural fluid formation is dictated by what law

Starling Law

18

Normally, only ___mL fluid is present in the pleural space

4-12

19

Mechanism of pleural effusion formation in pleural inflammation

1) Increased pleural membrane permeability 2) Increase proteinaceous fluid formation 2) Lymphatic absorption obstruction

20

Serofibrinous pleurisy is often preceded by

Plastic pleurisy

21

PE finding particularly in infants with pleurisy

Bronchial breathing

22

Exudate: Protein level

>3 g/dL

23

Exudate: Pleural fluid:Serum protein ratio

>0.5

24

Exudate: Pleural fluid LDH

Less than 200 IU/L

25

Exudate: Pleural fluid: Serum LDH ratio

>0.6

26

Exudate: pH

Less than 7.2

27

Pleural fluid glucose level in malignancy, rheumatoid disease, and Tb

Less than 60 mg/dL

28

Pleural fluid exam finding of many small lymphocytes and pH less than 7.2 suggests what

Tuberculosis

29

SG of pleural fluid if it is a hydrothorax

Less than 1.015

30

Cells seen in pleural fluid in cases of hydrothorax

Mesothelial cells