Anatomy, neuroanatomy, and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy, neuroanatomy, and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Deck (84):
1

When oxygen is needed, what part of the brain fires impulses to the respiratory muscles?

Medulla Oblongata.

2

Framework of Respiration

inhalation --> chest and lungs expand --> diaphragm lowers --> air flows thru nose and mouth --> air goes down pharynx thru the open vocal folds --> air continues down to trachea and bronchial tubes --> air gets to lungs

3

When respiratory system is at rest, how much are the lungs inflated?

40%

4

which lung is shorter, broader and bigger?

the right lung

5

What are the three structures that are key to adequate respiration?

Lungs: this is where the exchange of gas is accomplished

Bronchi: these are tubes that extend from trachea into lungs, communicate with alveoli that open to tiny air sacks in the lungs

trachea: as person inhales-air goes through larynx to the trachea to the lungs which expand. when exhale, air goes upward through trachea-cartilage rings.connects larynx to the bronchi

6

internal intercostals

pull ribs down to to decrease the diameter of the thoracic cavity for exhalation

7

external intercostals

raise the ribs up and out for inhalation

8

3 biological functions of the larynx

1. cough
2. close trachea so food doesn't enter the lungs.
3. Adduct VFs to build up pressure for lifting

9

what are the Intrinsic muscles of the larynx

thyroarytenoid
lateral cricoarytenoid
transverse aryetenoid
oblique arytenoid
cricothyroid
posterior cricoarytenoid

10

What muscle makes up the vocal folds

vocalic muscle
thyroarytenoid

11

which muscle lengthens and tenses the vocal folds?

cricothyroid

12

Which muscle increases medial compression of the vocal folds?

lateral cricoarytenoid

13

What muscle increases pitch?

cricothyroid

14

What is the only abductor of the vocal folds?

posterior cricothyroid

15

what are the adductor muscles of the vocal folds

lateral cricoarytenoid
transverse arytenoid
oblique arytenoid

16

which muscles depress the larynx?

(4)
thyrohyoid
omohyoid
sternothyroid
sternohyoid

17

what muscles elevate the larynx?

(6)
digastric
geniohyoid
mylohyoid
stylohyoid
hyoglossus
genioglossus

18

What are the three Layers of the vocal folds?

1. epithelium
2. Lamina propia
3. Vocalic muscle -thyroarytenoid - body

19

what are the three layers of the lamina propia

1. superficial
2. intermediate
3. deep lamina propia

20

What is the cover?

the cover is the epithelium and the superficial layer and much of the intermediate layer of the lamina propia

21

What is the body of the vocal fold

the remainder of the intermediate layer , the deep layer and the thyroarytenoid muscle

22

What is the cover body theory of phonation

the cover vibrates while the body is stationary

23

what is composed of a ring of connective tissue and muscle extending from the tips of the arytenoids to the larynx

aryepiglottic folds

24

What are the functions of the aryepiglottic folds

they seperate the larngeal vestibule from the pharynx and help preserve the airway

25

what folds usually compress during coughing or heavy lifting?

ventricular, false folds

26

What is the myoelastic- aerodynamic theory

the vocal folds vibrate due to the forces and pressure of the air and the elasticity of the vocal folds
Myoelasticity: once the VF have been forced apart, they begin to recoil back to midline, due to their natural elasticity. (elastic recoil- similar to the lung-thorax unit)

27

bernouli effect

air travels towards less pressure

28

what direction does the mucosal wave travel

back to front

29

The primary cortical areas involved in speech-motor control

primary motor cortex
brocas area
somatosensory cortex
supplementary motor cortex

30

function of the cerebellum

regulates motor movement
coordination

31

what branch of the superior laryngeal nerve innervated he cricothyroid muscle?

the external branch of the SLN

32

what are the 3 branches of the Vagus nerve

superior laryngeal
recurrent laryngeal
pharyngeal

33

What happens if there is damage to the superior laryngeal branch?

difficulties managing the pitch

34

What happens if there is damage to the recurrent laryngeal branch?

paralysis of the vocal folds

35

What happens if there is damage to the pharyngeal

hypernasality

36

what branch innervates the cricothyroid?

superior laryngeal

37

what branch innervates all intrinsic muscles of the larynx beside the cricothyroid?

recurrent laryngeal branch

38

What are the resonators that modify laryngeal tone?

pharynx
nasal cavity
oral cavity

39

What are the muscles needed for velopharyngeal closure.?

Tensor veli palatini.
Levator veli palatini.

Palatoglossus.
Palatopharyngeus.

40

what is the primary elevator of the velum?

levator veli palatini

41

what tenses the velum and dilates the eustachian tube?

tensor veli palatini

42

What are the two functions of the muscles of the mouth?

1. chewing food
2. opening and closing mouth

43

What is the primary muscle of the lips?

orbicularis oris muscle

44

What muscle are the cheeks primarily made of?

buccinator

45

What nerves primarily supplies the facial muscles

buccal branches and mandibular marginal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

46

What do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

shorten and turn up

47

what do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

bulk tongue, depress, down and retract

48

What are the cranial nerves most associated with articulation?

trigeminal V
facial VII
Vagus X
Spinal accessory VI
hypoglossal VII

49

pneumonic for remembering the cranial nerves

On Old Olympus' Towering Top, A Finn and German Viewed Some Hops

50

What cranial nerve functions as sensory for the face and motor for the jaw?

Trgeminal V

51

Taste sensation to anterior 2/3 of the tongue

Facial VII

52

If damage to this nerve theres a mask like facial expression

Facial VII

53

Nerve primarily for balance and equilibrium

Acoustic VIII

54

Lesions on this nerve create difficulty in swallowing, unilateral loss of the gag reflex, and loss of taste in the posterior 2/3 of the tongue

Glossopharyngeal IX

55

Lesions to this nerve can result in tongue paralysis, diminished intelligibility and swallowing problems.

Hypoglossol XII

56

What are the three key structures of the brain stem

midbrain, pons and the medulla

57

contains descending motor fibers and is involved with hearing and balance. houses the nuclei for the trigeminal V and facial nerve VII

The Pons

58

most important part of the brainstem for speech production

the medulla

59

pyramidal tracts start here

the medulla

60

lesions here, result in unusual body posture, dysarthria, changes in body tone, and dyskinesias that interfere with a persons ability to walk, speak and many other activities

Basal Ganglia

61

damage to this part of the brain causes ataxia

cerebellum

62

Area around this fissure are critical in speech language and hearing

sylvian fissure

63

What lobe is important in planning, executing and attention

the frontal lobe

64

which lobe is important in perception and processing of visual, tactile and proprioceptive inso

parietal lobe
think right hemisphere disorder

65

lobe that houses auditory skills

temporal lobe

66

what is located on the the precentral gyrus and controls voluntary movements of the skeletal system on the opposite side.

primary motor cortex/motor strip

67

Wernickes area is located in what lobe?

temporal lobe

68

what is the direct motor activation pathway that is primarily responsible for facilitating voluntary muscle movements

the pyramidal system

69

The pyramidal system is composed of what two tracts

corticospinal and corticobulbar

70

where do the projection fibers of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tract originate?

cerebral cortex

71

corticospinal is contralateral of ipsilateral

contralateral

72

Which tract from the pyramidal system is critical to speech production

corticobulbar

73

cerebral ventricles are filled with

cerebral spinal fluid

74

Function of Cerebral spinal fluid is

nourish the the neural tissue, remove waste product, cushion the brain and regulate intracranial pressure

75

there are ___ cerebral ventricles

4
(2) lateral (biggest)
the third
and the fourth

76

How many layers protect the brain and what are they called?

3 the meninges

77

describe the three meninges

1. dura =outermost, thick and tough
2. arachnoid = spider web =semitransparent, thin delicate, weblike, CSF fills the space between arachnoid and pia matter
3. Pia matter= delicate thin membrane that adheres to the brain surface like plastic wrap,

78

Major blood suppliers of the brain =

the aorta, vertebral arteries, carotid arteries, and the circle of willis

79

damage to the middle cerebral artery may result in:

strokes, aphasia

80

What will happen if an artery is blocked above the circle of willis?

brain damage, because the brain has no alternate source of blood

81

What will happen if an artery is blocked below the circle of willis?

brain damage may be minimal because alternate channels may be available

82

Which pyramidal tract is more of the indirect activation system?

extrapyramidal
it helps maintain posture and tone

83

what cranial nerves innervate the pharynx

IX and X
glossopharyngeas and Vagus

84

What type of neuron carries signals away from the brain?

efferent