Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Reproductive System > Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System Deck (83):
1

What happens to the ovary during development? 

It descends in the pelvis

2

What does the descent of the ovary have implications for? 

Venous and lymphatic drainage of the ovaries

3

Where do the gonads develop? 

Within the mesonephric ridge, on the posterior abdominal wall 

4

What is the inferior pole of the ovary attached to? 

The gubernaculum 

 

5

What is the inferior attachment of the gubernaculum? 

Labia majora

6

What causes the descent of the ovary? 

The relative shortening of the gubernaculum, which drags the ovary through the abdomen 

7

Where does the ovary stop its descent? 

In the pelvis

8

What is the arterial supply to the ovary? 

Via direct branches of the abdominal aorta

9

What is the venous drainage of the ovary? 

  • The right ovarian vein into the inferior vena cava
  • The left ovarian vein into the left renal vein

 

10

What are the parts of the uterus? 

  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Uterine tubes
  • Cervix

 

11

Draw a labelled diagram of the uterus

12

What happens to the fundus as pregnancy proceeds? 

It becomes palpable

13

What is the clinical importance of the fundus of the uterus? 

It is an important clinical measurement in pregnancy 

14

What is the function of the uterine tubes? 

Duct system for the gamete

15

What does the cervix contain? 

The endocervical canal

16

What is the endocervical canal? 

A channel that runs through the cervix

17

What are the peritoneal pouches of the uterus? 

  • The uterovesical pouch anteriorly
  • The rectouterine pounch posteriorly

 

18

Where is the uterovesical pouch? 

Between the urinary bladder and uterus 

19

What is the rectouterine pouch also known as? 

The pouch of Douglas

20

Where is the rectouterine pouch?

Between the rectum and the uterus 

21

How can the rectouterine pouch be accessed? 

Through the posterior fornix of the vagina

22

What is the peritoneal pouch in a male? 

The rectovesical pouch

23

Where is the rectovesical pouch found? 

Between the bladder and the rectum 

24

What does the uterus develop from? 

The paramesonephric duct

25

What are the paramesonephric ducts? 

A pair of ducts that are open cranially and caudally, and connect to the urogenital sinus 

26

Why do the paramesonephric ducts need to be open? 

To allow for the collection of gametes after ovulation 

27

When do paramesonephric ducts persist in development? 

In the absence of MIH, and therefore in the absense of testes

28

What happens to the paramesonephric ducts in female development? 

They grow into the abdominal cavity, dragging the peritoneal membrane with it, then fuse in the midline

29

What does fusion of the paramesonephric ducts in the midline create? 

A broad transverse fold draped by peritoneum, the broad ligament

30

What is the purpose of the broad ligament? 

It is like a mesentery, in that it is a sheet of pertioneum that allows structures to enter and leave, including vasculature

31

What is the round ligament of the uterus embryologically derived from? 

The gubernaculum 

32

What is the round ligament of the uterus attached to? 

The ovary and labium majus

33

Where does the round ligament of the uterus travel?

Through the inguinal canal

34

What does the pathway of the round ligament through the inguinal canal have consequences for?

Lymphatic drainage

35

What is the consequence of the round ligament running through the inguinal canal on the lymphatic drainage?

Lymphatics run with the round ligament through the inguinal canal, so sometimes pathologies of the fundus of the uterus present as enlargement of the inguinal lymph nodes

36

What position is the uterus in? 

It is anteverted with respect to the vagina, and anteflexed with respect to the cervix. 

Normally tipped anteriorly, lying on top of the bladder

37

What does the uterine tube consist of?

  • Abdominal ostium (opening)
  • Fimbriae
  • Infundibulum
  • Ampulla
  • Isthmus

 

38

What is the clinical relevance of the abdominal ostium of the uterine tube? 

Means that the peritoneal cavity is open, and so there is a pathway for infection to spread from the lower reproductive tract, then into the abdominal cavity 

39

What is the function of the uterine tube? 

  • Conduct oocyte into the uterine cavity
  • Normally the site of fertilisation

 

40

Is the lining of the uterine tube endometrium, as in the uterine cavity 

No 

41

What is the consequence of the lining of the uterine tube not being endometrium? 

Has a consequence for ectopic implantation, as control of implantation is dependant on the presence of endometrium 

42

What does the cervix consist of? 

  • Internal os (opening into vagina)
  • Endocervical canal 
  • External os (to body of uterus)

 

43

What ligaments support the pelvic viscera? 

  • Transverse cervical ligament
  • Uterosacral ligament
  • Pubovesical ligament

 

44

What is the tranverse cervical ligament? 

Thickening at the base of the broad ligament

45

What does the transverse cervical ligament do? 

Provides lateral stability of the cervix

46

What does the uterosacral ligament do? 

Opposes anterior pull of the round ligament, assisting in maintaining anteversion 

47

What arteries supply blood to the female internal genitalia?

  • Ovarian artery
  • Uterine artery
  • Internal pudendal

 

48

What is the ovarian artery a branch of? 

The abdominal aorta

49

What is the uterine artery a branch of? 

Anterior division of internal iliac

50

What does the uterine artery give branches to? 

The vaginal artery

51

What is the internal pudendal artery a branch of? 

Anterior division of internal iliac

52

What is true of the blood supply to the female internal genitalia? 

It has lots of anastomoses

53

What is the purpose of the anastomoses of the blood supply to the female internal genitalia? 

Ensures maintainance of blood supply 

54

Why is the maintaince of the blood supply to the female internal genitalia of critical importance? 

Because if pregancy should occur, there is massive growth of the myometrium which needs to be supported by blood supply 

55

What is the uterine artery in important anatomical relationship with? 

The ureter

56

Where does the ureter run in relation to the uterine artery? 

The ureter runs under the artery

57

When is it important to consider the close relationship between the ureter and the uterine artery? 

During a hysterectomy 

58

Why is it important to consider the close relationship between the ureter and the uterine artery during a hysterectomy? 

Because it is at risk of iatrogenic damage

59

How could a surgeon differentiate between the ureter and the uterine artery? 

The ureter has a peristaltic reflex

60

Why does the uterus have a complex pattern of lymphatic drainage? 

Reflective of its complex development

61

What nodes does the uterus drain to? 

  • Para-aortic
  • External iliac
  • Internal iliac
  • Sacral
  • Inguinal

 

62

By what route does the uterus drain to the para-aortic nodes? 

Along suspensory ligament

63

What parts of the uterus drain into the para-aortic nodes? 

  • Fundus 
  • Body of uterus
  • Ovary

 

64

What parts of the uterus drain into the external iliac nodes? 

  • Body of uterus
  • Cervix

 

65

What parts of the uterus drain into the internal iliac nodes? 

Cervix

66

What parts of the uterus drain into the sacral nodes? 

Cervix

67

What parts of the uterus drain into the inguinal nodes? 

The fundus

68

What are the parts of the female external genitalia? 

  • Labia majora
  • Labia minora
  • Vestible

 

 

69

What does the labia majora do? 

Encloses the pudendal cleft

70

What does the labia minora do? 

Encloses the vestibule of the vagina

 

71

What does the vestible of the vagina contain? 

Orifaces of; 

  • Urethra
  • Vagina
  • Greater and lesser vestibular glands, aka Bartholin glands

 

72

What are the potential pathologies of the Bartholin glands? 

  • Bartholinitis
  • Bartholin gland cyst

 

73

What is a Bartholin gland cyst? 

An accumulation of fluid that is not related to infection

74

What does the vaginal oriface open into? 

The vestible

75

What does the vaginal oriface open into the vestible along with? 

The external urethral oriface and the ducts of the greater and lesser vestibular glands

76

What are the vaginal fornices? 

Superior recesses of the vagina around the cervix

77

What is the clinical significance of the vaginal fornices? 

Because they are the site of culdocentesis

78

What is culdocentesis? 

Sampling of abnormal fluid from pouch of Douglas

79

What innervates the vagina and uterus? 

  • Inferior 1/5 of vagina receives somatic innervation from pudendal nerve
  • Superior 4/5 of vagina and uterus recieves innervation from uterovaginal plexus

 

80

What does the location of pain originating from the vagina and uterus depend on? 

The pelvic pain line

81

Where does pain originating from the vagina and uterus travel back to? 

Either;

  • Inferior thoracic lumbar spine ganglia
  • S2-4 spinal ganglia

 

82

What innervates the perineum? 

  • Pudendal nerve
  • Ilioinguinal nerve

 

83

What course does the pudendal nerve take? 

  • Exits pelvis via greater sciatic foramen
  • Enters perineum via lesser sciatic foramen
  • Travels through pudendal canal