Menopause Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Reproductive System > Menopause > Flashcards

Flashcards in Menopause Deck (34):
1

What stages does the menopause consist of? 

  • Pre-menopause
  • Menopause
  • Post-menopause

 

2

When does pre-menopause begin? 

Typically from ˜40 years, but variable 

3

What is considered to be premature menopause? 

Before early 30's 

4

What is premature menopause due to? 

Follicular failure

5

What happens to ovulation in pre-menopause? 

Ovulation is early is absent 

6

What happens to oestrogen in pre-menopause? 

Less oestrogen is secreted

7

What happens to LH and FSH levels in pre-menopause? 

LH and FSH levels rise, FSH more

8

Why do FSH and LH levels rise in pre-menopause? 

Reduced feedback

9

What happens to fertility in pre-menopause? 

It is reduced

 

10

What is the menopause? 

Cessation of the menstural cycle

11

What is the average of menopause? 

49-50, but variable 

 

12

When do menopause occur? 

When there are no more follicles to develop 

13

What is the indiciation that someone has passed from pre-menopause to menopause? 

When there have been no menstrual cycles for 12 months

14

What happens to oestrogen levels in menopause? 

They fall dramatically

15

What happens to FSH and LH levels in menopause? 

They rise, FSH dramatically 

16

What are the effects to menopause? 

  • Vascular changes
  • Has effects on oestrogen sensitive tissues
  • Effects on bone

 

17

What oestrogen sensitive tissues are affected in the menopause? 

  • Uterus
  • Bone 
  • Cervix
  • Vagina
  • Breast tissue
  • Skin
  • Bladder/pelvic muscles

 

18

What is the effect of the menopause on the uterus?

  • Regression of the endometrium 
  • Shrinkage of myometrium 

 

19

What is the effect of the menopause on the cervix?

Thinning

20

What is the effect of the menopause on the vagina? 

  • Vaginal rugae lost
  • Thinner, dryer

 

21

What is the effect of the menopause on breast tissue? 

Involution of some breast tissue 

22

What is the result of the changes in bladder and loss of pelvic tone in the menopause?

Increased risk of urinary incontinence 

23

What is the effect of the menopause on bone? 

Bone mass reduced by 2.5% per year for several years

24

Why does the menopause result in a loss of bone mass? 

Reduced oestrogen enhances osteoclast ability to absorb bone 

25

What does the loss of bone mass in the menopause lead to?

Osteoporosis 

26

What does the fact that the severity of menopausal osteoporosis is much worse in some than others indicate? 

That there are other factors, not just sensitivity to oestrogen 

 

27

What is post-menopausal osteoporosis a major cause of? 

Fractures in later life

28

How can post-menopausal osteoporosis be limited? 

Oestrogen therapy

29

How can menopausal symptoms be treated? 

Hormone replacement therapy

30

What are the advantages of hormone replacement therapy? 

  • Can improve well-being
  • Can limit osteoporosis

 

31

Is HRT recommended for a first line protection against osteoporosis in menopause? 

No 

32

Is HRT adviced for cardioprotection in menopause?

No 

33

How can HRT be administered? 

Orally or topically, by patch or gel

34

 Do males experience menopause? 

No, there is no obvious events in males, and sperm production continues