Label this diagram
- C - Capsule
- ST - Seminiferous tubule
- R - Rete testis
- DE - Efferent ducts
- H - Head of epididymis
- B - Body of epididymis
- T - Tail of epididymis
- V - Vas deferens
Label this histograph
- L - Leydig cells
- G - Cells of the germ cell lineage
- S - Sertoli cells
What does the seminiferous epithelium consist of?
Two cell types;
- Sertoli cells
- Cells of the germ cell lineage
What do the sertoli cells form?
The blood-testis environment
What is the importance of the blood-testis environment?
It provides a safe environment for spermatogenesis
Why is it important that there is a safe environment for spermatogenesis?
Ensures the integrity of the next generation
Where are cells of the germ cell lineage found in the seminiferous tubules?
Embedded in sertoli cells
Where are leydig cells found?
Interspersed in connective tissue islands, between (but seperated from) seminiferous tubules
What is the function of Leydig cells?
Why are tumours of the testis very important?
Because they are a high proportion of tumours seen in early life
What % of testicular neoplasms are germ cell tumours?
What do seminiferous tubules converge on?
How do seminiferous tubules converge onto rete testis?
Via tubuli recti
Describe the histological features of the rete testis?
Simple cuboidal epithelium
What is the function of the rete testis?
Provides exit to the duct system for male germ cells
What does the efferent duct connect?
The rete testis with the head of the epididymis
What are the histological features of the efferent duct?
Characteristic scalloped epithelium
Label this histogram of the efferent duct
- C - Cilia
- M - Myoid cells
What contributes to sperm transport in the rete testis?
Combined ciliary and myoid contraction
What control is myoid contraction in the efferent duct under?
Why is it important that the efferent duct has mechanisms to aid motility?
Transports sperm until they develop independent motility
What is the vas deferens?
A four layered tube that connects the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
What are the layers of the vas deferens?
- 3 layers of smooth muscle
What kind of epithelium does the vas deferens have?
What are the layers of smooth muscle in the vas deferens?
Longitudinal -> Circular -> Longitudinal
What happens to the smooth muscle of the vas deferens during ejaculation?
It contracts under autonomic control to propel gametes out of the tract
What kind of epithelium does the seminal vesicle have?
What kind of muscle is found in the seminal vesicle?
Smooth muscle layer
Under what control is the smooth muscle layer of the seminal vesicle?
What is the purpose of the smooth muscle layer of the seminal vesicle?
Sympathetic innervation enables discharge of contents into duct
What are the histological features of the prostate?
- 30-50 tubulo-alveolar glands draining into prostatic urethra
- Ejaculatory ducts merge with urethra within the prostate
- Characteristic fibromuscular stroma
What are the most common prostatic disorders?
- Benign prostatic hypertrophy
- Prostatic adenocarcinoma
What does prostatic adenocarcinoma give rise to histologically?
Loss of normal architecture