Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Reproductive System > Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Male Reproductive Tract Deck (93):
1

What is the male reproductive tract in anatomical relationship with? 

The urinary tract

2

What is the scrotum? 

A cutaneous sac

3

What does the scrotum contain? 

  • Testis
  • Epididymis
  • First part of spermatic cord

 

4

What is the testis surrounded by? 

The tunica vaginalis

5

What is the tunica vaginalis derived from? 

Processus vaginalis 

6

What is testis enclosed by? 

Tunica albuginea

7

Are the testes enclosed within the peritoneal membrane? 

No, sit behin it enveloped in an outpouching

8

What is the testis organised into? 

Lobules

9

How is the testis organised into lobules?

By fibrous septae

10

What is found within the lobules of the testis?

Functional tissue of the testis

11

What happens to the testes during development? 

They descend

12

What are the testes developed from? 

Labioscrotal folds

13

What are the labio scrotal folds derived from? 

Outpouchings of the anterolateral abdominal wall 

14

Where do the gonads develop?

Within the mesonephric ridge, up in the abdomen in association with the kidneys

15

What course do the testes take during their descent? 

  • Descend through the abdomen, behind the peritoneum
  • Cross the inguinal canal
  • Exit the anterolateral abdominal wall 

 

16

Are the testes palpable in the scrotum at delivery in a term pregnancy? 

Yes

17

What is the arterial supply of the testes? 

Direct branch of the abdominal aorta

 Relates to their embryological origin 

18

What is the venous drainage of the testes? 

By the testicular vein, which drains into; 

  • IVC on right
  • Renal vein on left

 

 

19

What is the innervation of the testes? 

  • Anterior surface by lumbar plexus
    • Posterior and inferior surfaces by sacral plexuses
    •  

20

What does the lymphatics of the testes drain into? 

The para-aortic nodes 

21

Where does the lymphatics of the scrotum drain into? 

The superficial inguinal nodes 

22

Why is there a vast difference in the lymphatic drainage of the testes and the scrotum, despite them being close to each other geographically? 

Because the testes develop on the posterior abdominal wall, and the drainage reflects that 

 

23

What does the epididymis consist of? 

  • Head 
  • Body 
  • Tail 

 

24

What does the epididymis do? 

Connects to the seminiferous tubules via efferent ductules and rete testis

25

What does the spermatic cord contain? 

Structures running to and from testes;

  • Neurovascular structures
  • Duct system
  • Processus vaginalis

26

What neurovascular structures does the spermatic cord contain? 

  • Testicular artery
  • Cremasteric artery
  • Artery to vas
  • Pampiniform plexus
  • Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve

 

27

What is the pampiniform plexus? 

The beginning of the venous drainage, drains to testicular artery

28

What does the pampiniform plexus form? 

A meshwork around the artery, ensuring optimum temperature for gametogenesis

29

What is the optimum temperature for gametogenesis? 

Slightly lower than body temperature

30

How does the pampiniform plexus ensure optimum temperature for gametogenesis? 

The veins form a heat exchange surface, so the blood that enters the testes is of a slightly lower temperature

31

Other than the pampiniform plexus, what else helps maintain the optimum temperature for gametogenesis? 

The scrotum hanging lower than the body 

32

What part of the duct system does the spermatic cord contain? 

Vas deferens

33

What course does the vas deferens take? 

  1. Ascends in the spermatic cord
  2. Transverses inguinal canal
  3. Tracks around pelvic side wall
  4. Passes between bladder and ureter
  5. Forms dilated ampulla
  6. Opens into ejaculatory duct

 

34

What is formed from specialisations of the dilated ampulla of the ductus deferens? 

The seminal vesicles

35

What are the coverings of the spermatic cord?

  • External spermatic fascia
  • Cremasteric muscle and fascia
  • Internal spermatic fascia

 

36

What is the external spermatic fascia?

The aponeurosis of the external oblique

37

Where does the cremasteric muscle and fascia come from? 

The internal oblique and transversalis

38

Where does the internal spermatic fascia come from? 

The transversalis fascia 

39

What is the result of the oblique pathway of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal? 

There is a sequential building of the muscular and fascial layers

40

What path does the spermatic cord take? 

The path that the testes take during development 

From the deep inguinal ring and lateral to inferior epigastric vessels, to the posterior border testis, via the inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring 

41

What are the potential pathologies of the scrotum and its contents? 

  • Hydrocoele
  • Haematocoele
  • Spermatocoele
  • Epididymitis
  • Inguinal hernia
  • Testicular torsion

 

42

What is a hydrocoele?

Serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis

43

How can a hydrocoele arise?

Becasue tunica vaginalis is derived from a serous peritoneal membrane, so normally produces a small amount of serous fluid. However, can get over production

44

What is a haemoatocoele?

Blood in the tunica vaginalis

45

What is a haematocoele typically a result of?

Trauma

46

What is a spermatocoele also known as?

An epididymal cyst

47

What is a spermatocoele?

A collection of developing spermatozoa

48

What is epididymitis?

Inflammation of the epididymis

49

What is epididymitis usually a consequence of?

Infection

50

What can be used to determine the type of swelling in the scrotum?

Transillumination

51

How can transillumination be used to determine the type of swelling in the scrotum?

  • If swelling is fluid, allows light, so will transilluminate
  • If swelling is solid, will not allow light, so won't transilluminate

 

  •  

52

What are the types of inguinal hernias?

  • Direct
  • Indirect

 

53

Where does a direct inguinal hernia pass?

Through the inguinal wall

54

Where does an indirect inguinal hernia pass?

Through the inguinal canal, following the same pathway as the testes did during development

55

What is the developmental basis of an indirect inguinal hernia?

It is the reopening of the processus vaginalis, which should have nothing in it, but sometimes does and therefore can allow an intestinal loop to pass into the scrotum

56

What does a failure of closure of the tunica vaginalis produce?

A potential continunity between the peritoneal cavity and the tunica vaginalis, i.e. between the abdomen and the scrotum

57

What is testicular torsion?

Twisting of the testes around the spermatic cord

58

Where does testicular torsion most commonly occur?

Just above the upper pole

59

What can testicular torsion lead to?

May occlude the testicular artery, leading to ischaemia and risking necrosis of the testis

60

Where do the seminal vesicles lie?

Between bladder and rectum

61

Are the seminal vesicles a storage site? 

No 

62

What do the secretions of the seminal vesicles constitute? 

70-80% of the ejaculate 

63

What are the seminal vesicles formed from? 

Diverticulum of the vas deferens

64

What does the duct of the seminal vesicle combine with? 

The vas deferens

65

What is formed when the duct of the SV combines wih the VD? 

The ejaculatory duct

66

What kind of gland is the prostate? 

Fibromuscular

67

What important anatomical relationships does the prostate have? 

  • Base with neck of bladder
  • Apex with urethral sphincter and deep perineal muscles
  • Muscular anterior surface with urethral sphincter
  • Posterior with ampulla of rectum
  • Inferolateral with levator ani 

 

68

What are the zones of the prostate? 

  • Central zone
  • Peripheral zone

 

69

Where does the urethra run in relation to the prostate? 

Through the centre of the body of the prostate

70

What can result from enlargement of the prostate? 

Can compress the urethra 

71

Why will varying states of enlargement compress the urethra? 

Depends on where it is 

72

Where does benign prostatic hypertrophy primarily affect? 

The middle lobule

73

What does benign prostatic hypertrophy lead to? 

Obstruction of the internal urethral orifice 

74

What are the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy? 

  • Dysuria
  • Nocturia
  • Urgency

75

Where do prostatic malignancies usually affect? 

Outer lobes

76

What is the result of prostatic malignancies usually affecting the outer lobes? 

They present later

77

How can prostatic malignancies metastasise? 

  • Lymphatic route
  • Venous routes

 

78

What lymph nodes are involved in prostate cancer metastasise?

  • Internal iliac
  • Sacral

 

79

What veins are involved in prostate cancer metastases? 

Internal vertebral plexus to vertebrae and brain

80

What does a digital rectal examination (DRE) allow? 

Examination of the prostate gland

81

What does a DRE exploit? 

The anatomical relationship of the prostate to the rectum 

82

What does the penis consist of? 

  • Root
  • Body
  • Glans

 

83

What does the internal structure of the penis consist of? 

  • Pair of corpus cavernosa dorsally
  • A single corpus spongiosum ventrally

 

84

What is the penis supplied by? 

Branches of the internal pudendal arteries 

85

What are the parts of the urethra? 

  • Pre-prostatic
  • Prostatic
  • Membranous
  • Spongy

 

86

Which parts of the urethra are very short? 

  • Pre-prostatic
  • Membranous

 

87

Which part of the urethra is the least distensible? 

Membranous

88

Why is the membranous part of the urethra the least distensible? 

Because the peritoneal membrane is a thick, membranous, fascial layer

89

When is the lack of distensibility of the membranous urethra important to consider? 

Male catherisation

90

What is the blood supply to the male perineum? 

Via the internal pudendal artery, which is a branch of the anterior divison of the internal iliac artery

91

What are the muscles of the male perineum? 

  • Bulbospongiosus
  • Ischiocavernosus

 

92

What does the bulbiospongiosus do? 

  • Helps expel last drops of urine
  • Helps maintain erection

93

What does the ischiocavernosus do? 

Compresses veins, therefore helps maintain erection