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Spinal Anatomy > Anthrology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anthrology Deck (64):
0

Three types of cartilage?

Fibrocartilage, hyaline, elastic

1

Bones are comprised of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

2

The three components of a skeletal system?

Bones, cartilage, dense connective tissue

3

Synarthrosis

Immovable

4

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly movable

5

Diarthrosis

Freely movable

6

Fibrous structure

Bones fastened together by thin layers of fibrous connective tissue

7

Syndesmosis

Joint consists of moderately long fibrous band which forms interosseous ligament

8

This Joint consists of moderately long fibrous band which forms interosseous ligament

Syndesmosis

9

Movement classification of a syndesmosis joint

Amphiarthrosis

10

Suture

Only between some bones of the skull; short fibrous bands forms sutural ligaments

11

The joint found Only between some bones of the skull; short fibrous bands forms the joint's ligaments

Suture joint

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Movement classification of a suture joint

Synarthrosis

13

Gomphosis

Articulation between tooth root and bony socket; short fibrous band forms periodontal ligament.

14

The Articulation between tooth root and bony socket; short fibrous band forms periodontal ligament.

Gomphosis

15

Movement classification for a gomphosis joint?

Synarthrosis

16

Cartilaginous structure

Connection consists of fibrocartilage and/or hyaline cartilage.

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Connection consists of fibrocartilage and/or hyaline cartilage.

Cartilaginous structure

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Synchondrosis

Bone united by bands of hyaline cartilage

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Movement classification of a synchondrosis joint?

Synarthrosis

20

Symphysis

Articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage., which in turn is attached to a pad of fibrocartilage.

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Movement classification of a symphysis joint

Amphiarthrosis

22

Articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage., which in turn is attached to a pad of fibrocartilage.

Symphysis

23

Synovial

Space between articulating bones filled with synovial fluid

24

Movement classification of a synovial joint

Diarthrosis- freely movable

25

Synovial joint general structure

Articular surfaces of bone covered with thin layer of hyaline cartilage.

Joint encased in joint capsule

26

The composition of a synovial joint capsule

Fibrous layer/membrane
Synovial membrane
Synovial fluid

27

Fibrous layer/membrane of a synovial joint

Thick, fibrous outer layer contiguous with periosteum of bones

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Thick, fibrous outer layer contiguous with periosteum of bones

Fibrous layer/membrane

29

Synovial membrane

Thin inner layer covering all non-cartilaginous surfaces

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Thin inner layer covering all non-cartilaginous surfaces

Synovial membrane

31

Synovial fluid

Secreted by synovial membrane, filling synovial cavity

32

Articular disc/meniscus

Fibrocartilage pad located between Articular surfaces

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Fibrocartilage pad located between Articular surfaces

Articular disk/ meniscus

34

Bursa

A closed fluid filled sac

35

Ball and socket synovial joint

Globular/spheroidal surface of one bone, articulates with a cup shaped surface of another bone. Tri axial range of movement.

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Globular/spheroidal surface of one bone, articulates with a cup shaped surface of another bone.

Ball and socket synovial joint

37

Condyloid aka ellipsoidal

Convex oval shaped surface of one bone articulates with concave elliptical surface of another bone

38

Convex oval shaped surface of one bone articulates with concave elliptical surface of another bone

Condyloid or ellipsoidal.

39

Saddle aka sellar

Articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions. Surface of one bone fits complimentary surface of another bone

40

Articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions. Surface of one bone fits complimentary surface of another bone

Saddle aka sellar

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Gliding aka arthroidal

Articulating surfaces are nearly flat

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Articulating surfaces are nearly flat

Gliding

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Hinge aka ginglymoidal

Convex cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with concave cylindrical surface of another.

44

Convex cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with concave cylindrical surface of another.

Hinge aka ginglymoidal

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Pivot aka trochoidal

Cylindrical pin of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament

46

Cylindrical pin of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament

Pivot aka trochoidal

47

Synovial joint movements

Angular
Circular
Special movements

49

Sagittal angular synovial movements

Flexion, extension, and hyperextension

Dorsiflexion and plantar Flexion at ankle joint only

50

the movements that occur with in a coronal plane of the body?

abduction and adduction

51

the two types of rotation movement?

1. movement of the body part around its own long axis.
2. supination and pronation at the proximal radio-ulnar joint

52

the movement in which the distal end of the segment moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively fixed>

circumduction

53

the special movements of the sole of the foot medially or laterally?

inversion and eversion

54

the special movements of a body part upward or downwards, respectively?

elevation and depression

55

the special movements of a body part forward or backward, respectively, parallel to the horizontal surface?

protraction and retraction

56

the displacement of a bone within a joint; partial (subluxation) or total (luxation)?

dislocation.
1. a rupture of the epiphyseal plate may occur in children instead of dislocation.
2. a bone fracture may occur in the elderly instead of dislocation.

57

the overstreching or tearing of a ligamentous tissue?

a sprain

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the overstretching or damage to a muscle?

strain

59

the inflammation of a bursa is known as?

Bursitis

60

the autoimmune disease involving the synovial joints where a granular secretion causes destruction of the articular cartilage?

rheumatoid arthritis

61

the genetic form of arthritis that is typically bilateral and affects small joints of hands and feet

rheumatoid arthritis

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rheumatoid arthritis can be characterized by?

inflammation of the synovial membrane, resulting in the production of abnormal secretions of a fibrous material and eventual joint fusion

63

the arthritis that affects weight-bearig joints, high-use joints, or joints previously involved in acute trauma?

osteoarthritis

64

the arthritis with a relatively late age of onset and often associated with development of accessory bone at periphery of joint surfaces.

osteoarthritis
the progressive degeneration of synovial joints through wear and tear