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Flashcards in B1 - Keeping Healthy Deck (45)
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What does a healthy diet contain?

Everything needed to keep the body healthy.

1

Give two reasons why some people can eat more food than other without damaging their health.

-People need different amounts of energy.
-Metabolic rates vary in each person.

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2

How does exercise effect the amount of energy the body needs?

The more exercise the body does, the more energy it needs.

3

What does the body use carbohydrates, fats and proteins for?

Release the energy needed to live and build new cells.

4

What are the seven groups of a balanced diet?

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre, water.

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5

Give five factors that effect the amount of energy the body requires.

-Gender
-Age
-Amount of exercise
-Pregnancy
-Climate

6

Define malnutrition

Caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat.


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7

Define metabolic rate.

The rate of chemical reactions in cells.

8

What happens if the body receives too much energy?

The excess energy is stored as fat.

9

Give four health problems that obesity can cause.

-Arthritis
-Type 2 diabetes
-High blood pressure
-Heart pressure

10

Give two examples of inherited factors that can affect your health?

Metabolic rate and cholesterol level.

11

Give three ways of losing weight.

-Reduce energy intake.
-Increase energy use by doing exercise.
-Combination of the above.

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12

How can you maintain the correct balance of cholesterol?

Eat a balanced diet.

13

Give three reasons why people who exercise are generally healthier than those that don't.

You are less likely to be overweight.
You have more muscle tissue which increases the metabolic rate. Exercise lowers blood cholesterol levels.

14

What are pathogens?

Disease causing microbes.

15

How do bacteria cause disease?

Bacteria can produce toxins which make you feel ill.

16

How do viruses cause disease?

Viruses damage cells as they reproduce.

17

Give three common symptoms of disease.

High temperature, headaches, rashes

18

How did it Ignaz Semmelweis change the way we look at disease?

He recognised the importance of hand washing in preventing the spread of disease.


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19

What is droplet infection?

Coughing, sneezing or talking expels tiny droplets full of pathogens from the breathing system.

20

What is direct contact infection?

Some diseases are spread by direct contact with the skin such as STIs

21

How does the skin act as a barrier?

It prevents bacteria and viruses from reaching the tissues that can be infected. If the skin's cut, clotting will take place to repair the damaged area and a scab will form stopping pathogens getting in through the wound.

22

Give four ways that a pathogen can enter your body.

Droplet infection, direct contact, contaminated food and drink or through a break in your skin.


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23

Give the two types of white blood cells.

Phagocytes and lymphocytes.

24

How do lymphocytes act to protect the body against pathogens?

Lymphocytes produce antibodies by reading the pathogen's antigen. The antibody triggers the phagocytes to act against the pathogen.

25

How does the breathing system prevent the entrance of pathogens?

Mucus covers the lining of the lungs and tubes trapping pathogens. The mucus is then moved out of the body or into the gut where the acid destroys the microbes.

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26

How do phagocytes act to protect the body against pathogens?

Phagocytes engulf the microbe and digest them.

27

How do some white blood cells stop you feeling ill?

Producing antitoxins cancels out the toxins released by pathogens.

28

Why can antibiotics not be used against viruses?

Viruses reproduce inside cells making it difficult to develop drugs that can destroy viruses without damaging the cells.

29

What is a medicine?

Medicines usually don't act against the pathogen but instead make the person feel better.


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