Flashcards in B2.1 - Cells, Tissues & Organs Deck (50)
What is the purpose of the nucleus?
It controls all the activity of the cell and contains all of the genetic material.
What are the five main structures of an animal cell?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
What is the purpose of the cytoplasm?
A liquid gel in which most necessary reactions take place.
What reaction take place in the cytoplasm?
What is the purpose of the mitochondria?
They carry out aerobic respiration and produce ATP.
What are ribosomes?
The structure in which protein synthesis takes place.
What are the three main features found in plant and algal cells that aren't in animal cells?
What is the purpose of a cell wall?
The strengthen and support the shape of a cell.
What do chloroplasts contain?
What is the purpose of chlorophyll?
It absorbs light energy for use in photosynthesis.
What type of cells don't contain chloroplasts?
Root cells because they don't photosynthesise.
What are the main features of a bacterial cell?
Slime capsule, cell wall, cell membrane, flagella, cytoplasm, genetic material (no nucleus), plasmids.
What is a plasmid?
A circular piece of DNA.
What is the purpose of flagella?
They allow the bacteria to move.
What does yeast produce from anaerobic respiration?
Ethanol and carbon dioxide.
What is anaerobic respiration in yeast known as?
What are the main structures of a yeast cell?
Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus.
What are specialised cells?
Cells that develop to carry out a particular function.
What are the three main adaptations of fat cells?
-Small amount of cytoplasm and large amount of fat.
-Few mitochondria since very little energy is needed.
-Ability to expand 1000x.
What is the purpose of a cone cell?
Give humans the ability to see colour.
What are the three main adaptations of cone cells?
-The outer segment contains a visual pigment which changes chemically in coloured light.
-Middle segment packed with mitochondria to release energy needed to reform the visual pigment.
-Specialised synapse connected to the optic nerve.
What is the purpose of a root hair cell?
Gives an increased surface area for roots to take in water and mineral ions.
What are the two main adaptations of a root hair cell?
-The cells increase the surface area for water to be absorbed.
-A large permanent vacuole speeds up osmosis.
What are the four main adaptations of sperm cells?
-Long tail helps the sperm move.
-Middle section full of mitochondria giving the tail energy.
-Acrosome stores digestive enzymes to break down outer layers of the egg.
-Large nucleus contains the genetic material to be passed on.
What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to a lower concentration.
What affects the rate of diffusion?
-The greater the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
-The higher the temperature, the faster particles move.
What types of substances can diffuse?
Dissolved substances and gases.
What is the concentration gradient?
The difference of concentration between two areas.
How does oxygen get into individual cells?
-The oxygen enters into the lungs.
-It diffuses from the lungs to the blood cells.
-On arrival at the cell, the oxygen diffuses into the cell through the membrane.