Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (73)
The most strong type of bond is...
jks, covalent bonds
The attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons
EN carbon is greater than EN hydrogen. Which is reduced?
Carbon has a greater attractive force for electrons, so it gains electrons, therefore it is reduced and hydrogen is oxidised
Reducing agents are themselves oxidised. True/False?
First law of thermodynamics?
Energy is neither created or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics?
When energy is converted to another form, some of it is lost (never 100% efficient)
∆G = the change in free energy = ?
∆H - T∆S
∆G°' + RTln([C][D]/[A][B])
Exergonic reactions are where...
Products have less free energy than the reactants
∆G is -ve
Reaction can occur spontaneously
Endergonic reactions are where...
Products have greater free energy than the reactants
∆G is +ve
Reaction cannot occur spontaneously
The difference between normal standard conditions and biochemical standard conditions is...
pH = 7
At equilibrium ∆G = 0. This is characteristic of readily reversible reactions. True/False?
Reaction spontaneity can be achieved by...
Changing concn of reactants/products
Coupling with highly favourable processes (e.g. with hydrolysis of ATP)
Both of the above help ∆G become -ve
Amino acids are subdivided into 4 groups, which are?
The N-terminal of a peptide chain is -ve. True/False?
It is +ve due to NH3
The C-terminal of a peptide chain is -ve. True/False?
True due to COO-
A zwitterion has which type of charge?
None! No net charge
Ka = acid dissociation constant = ?
pH = measurement of how many H+ in a solution = ?
Henderson Hasselbach Equation connects Ka of a weak acid with the pH of a solution containing this acid. The equation is...
pH = pKa + log[A-]/[HA]
pKa - pH = log[HA]/[A-]
Primary protein structure describes...
The specific sequence of amino acids in a chain
Secondary protein structure describes...
The hydrogen-bonded 3D arrangement of the chain
α-helix (one peptide chain spiralled; right-handed)
B-stranded-sheet or B-pleated-sheet
Tertiary protein structure describes...
The arrangement of the chain in space and forces stabilising the structure
Quaternary protein structure describes...
Association of non-protein groups to the chain
e.g. haemoglobin, myoglobin
What is the central dogma?
DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into protein
A nucleoside has...
5C sugar + organic base
A nucleotide has...
5C sugar + organic base + phosphate group(s)
Pol II synthesises only stable RNA. True/False?
Pol II synthesises all RNA. Pol I and III synthesise only stable RNA
DNA polymerase has 3 important characteristics
Can only add to existing nucleic acids
Cannot start synthesis on its own
Requires an RNA primer to start replication
Enzymes can affect the equilibrium position of a reaction. True/False?
How do enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction?
Bind to and stablise the transition state and provide alternative reaction pathways
Enzyme without a cofactor is called a...
Enzyme with a cofactor is called a...
Induced fit model describes enzyme-substrate interaction by...
Binding of substrate induces a conformational change in the enzyme, resulting in complementary fit
Trypsin and chymotrypsin work in the ____ and have an optimum pH of _
Small intestine, 7
What are isozymes?
Catalyse same reactions as enzymes but have different properties and structure
CK is an isozyme. The M form is produced in ____ and the B form is produced in the ___. MB form is produced in the ___
Skeletal muscle, brain, heart
Which enzymes carry out phosphorylation?
What are zymogens?
Inactive precursors of an enzyme
Where are trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen formed? Why is it important they are produced inactive?
They would digest the pancreas if active
Which enzyme activates trypsinogen? Where does this occur?
The maximal rate of reaction at unlimited substrate concn
The concn of substrate which gives 50% maximal rate, i.e. 0.5Vmax
A low Km means...
An enzyme only needs a little substrate to work at 0.5Vmax (it has high affinity)
Vmax can be obtained from a Lineweaver-Burk plot by looking at the interesection with the X axis. True/False?
Intersection with X axis is Km; intersection with Y axis is Vmax
In competitive inhibition, Vmax is ___ and Km is ___
The same, increased
In non-competitive inhibition, Vmax is ___ and Km is ___
Decreased, the same
Orthosteric enzymes follow M-M kinetics and the curve is shaped like a ____
Allosteric enzyme do not follow M-M kinetics and the curve is shaped like a ___
In the absence of a substrate, most enzyme subunits are in the inactive _ form. The presence of substrate shifts equilibrium from the inactive form to the active _ form
T (inactive), R (active)
GLUT3 is located in the...
GLUT5 is located in the...
In glycolysis, glucose (6C) is converted into...
2 x pyruvate (3C each)
In glycolysis, there is a net gain of how many ATP?
The _, _ and _ reactions in glycolysis are control points (irreversible as they are very exergonic)
1st, 3rd and final
3 enzymes involved in the glycolysis control points
Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase
We must reoxidise NADH to form __ in order to continue ATP synthesis after glycolysis
Pyruvate conversion to lactate occurs when?
Low oxygen - muscle cells work very hard to allow glycolysis to continue
NAD+ is regenerated by oxidation of NADH
What is the substrate for the TCA cycle?
Where does TCA cycle occur?
Mitochondria (mainly central matrix and then cristae)
What is the fate of pyruvate before TCA cycle?
Enters mitochondria, where PDC catalyses oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
2CO2 released in total
Citric acid (6C) is formed by the combination of which 2 molecules?
Oxaloacetate (4C) + Acetyl-CoA (2C)
How many cofactors are reduced in total in TCA cycle?
4 - 3x NAD+ and 1x FAD+
GDP conversion to GTP is known as...
Substrate level phosphorylation
Succinate hydrogenase uses FAD+ as a cofactor. It is the one enzyme of TCA cycle that is located in the central matrix. True/False?
It is the only enzyme located in the cristae - all others located in the central matrix
Lipids are converted to ______ and then ____ which enters TCA cycle
Fatty acids, Acetyl-CoA
Each turn of TCA cycle involves the uptake and release of how many carbon atoms, and in what form?
2C uptake as Acetyl-CoA, 2C released as 2CO2
Glycolysis + PDC + TCA cycle reactions = _NADH, _H+, _FADH2
10NADH, 10H+, 2FADH2
Each NADH and FADH2 molecule contains how many electrons?
A -ve electron transfer potential means...
Substance is more likely to donate electrons than hydrogen
What is the function of Co-enzyme Q?
Pick up electrons from Complex 1 or 2 and donate them to Complex 3
Transfer of electrons through the respiratory chain is coupled to transport of _ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space
Key point of oxidative phosphorylation:
Electrons from NADH and FADH2 reduce O2 to __
e- energy is used to pump protons from the matrix to the _____, causing matrix pH to ____
Protons follow their concn and flow across the membrane - this energy is used to phosphorylate ___ to ___
Intermembrane space, pH to increase (and intermembrane space pH to decrease)
ADP to ATP