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Flashcards in CA Staging and Tumor Types Deck (20):
1

The stage of cancer is based on what four main factors?

-location of the primary tumor

-tumor size and extent of tumors

-LN involvement

-presence or absence of distant metastasis

2

What are the four types of cancer staging?

Clinical staging: estimate the extent of cancer based on results

Pathologic Staging: surgical stage

Post-therapy/post-neoadjuvant therapy staging: determine how much CA remains after pt is treated with systemic chemo before surgery

Restaging: used to determine stage of dz after tx to see where cancer is at (these have an "r" before the stage)

3

What is the TNM system?

A cancer staging system

T=Primary tumor (size, depth into organ or nearby tissues)
N=nodes
M=metastasis

4

Describe each:
-TX
-T0
-Tis
-T1-4

-TX=tumor can't be measured

-T0=no evidence of a primary tumor

-Tis=cancer cells are only growing into most superficial layers, without growing into deeper tissues (cancer in situ)

-T1-4= describes the size and amount of spread, the higher the T number, the larger the tumor and spread into nearby tissue

5

Describe each:
-NX
-N0

-NX=nearby LN cant be evaluated

-N0=nearby LN do not contain CA

6

Describe each:
-M0
-M1

-M0=no cancer spread was found

-M1= spread to distant organs or tissues

7

Once the TNM has been determined, cancer is staged in roman numerals I- IV. What do these mean?

-I is least advanced

-IV is most advanced (spread to distant tissues or organs)

-some will be subdivided with A and B

-Stage 0 is carcinoma in Situ for most cancers

8

T/F The stage of the cancer is determined only when the cancer is first diagnosed.

True.

-You don't redo the stage because statistics and outcomes are specific to each stage when it is found.

-restaging is allowed, and an "r" is written before the new stage

9

What are the tumor types?

Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Multiple Myeloma
Melanoma
Brain/Spinal Cord Tumors
Other

10

Carcinoma:
-what type of cells?
-types

Cell type: epithelial cell

Types:
-adenocarcinoma: produces fluid or mucus
-basal call: begins in the base layer of the epidermis.
-squamous cell: epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin, line the stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder, and kidneys
-transitional cell: epithelial cells transitional epithelium or urothelium

11

Sarcoma:
-what type of tissue?
-types

Type of tissue: cancers that form in bone and soft tissue

Types:
-osteosarcoma (Bone)
-Leiomyosarcoma
-Kaposi sarcoma
-Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

12

Leukemia:
-what type of tissue?
-types

Tissue type:
-blood forming tissue of bone marrow

Types:
-Acute Lymphoblastic
-Acute Myeloid
-Chronic lymphoblastic
-Chronic Myeloid

13

Lymphoma:
-what type of tissue?
-types

Multiple Myeloma:
-what type of tissue?

Lymphoma:
-cancer of the lymphocytes

-Types:
-hodgkins (reed sternberg cells)
-non-hodgkin

Multiple Myeloma:
-cancer of plasma cells (rouloux formation)

14

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors:
-what type of tissue?

Other types

Types of tissue:
-based upon cell they formed and where tumor first formed.

Others:
-germ cell tumors
-neuroendocrine tumors
-carcinoid tumors

15

Lung, prostate, pancreatic, esophageal, and colorectal CA are MC what type of CA?

Adenocarcinoma

16

WHat are the two types of lung CA?

Small lung cell
-oat cell and combined small cell

Non-small cell
-squamous cell, large cell, adenocarcinoma

17

Clear Cell Carcinoma:
-found where in the body?

Breast, skin, lower urinary tract, female reporductive system
ex. Renal Cell Carcinoma

18

Germ Cell Carcinoma:
-what is this?
-where do tumors arise??
-types

What; cells develop in the embyro and become the cells that make up the reproductive system

Tumors arise:
-ovaries and testes
-head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, lower back

Types:
-teratomas
-germinoas
-endodermal sinus/yolk sac tumor
-choriocarcinoma
-embryonal carcinoma

19

Myxoma;
-what is this?
-MC tumor of which organ?

What: tumor of primitive CT

MC primary tumor of the heart in adults.

20

Pathology Report- define the following terms.
-Atypical
-carcinoma
-dysplasia
-granuloma
-hyperplasia
-metaplasia
-well differentiated
-poorly differentiated
-mitotic rate

Atypical: vague warning but not worried enough to call it CA.

Carcinoma: neoplasm derived from epithelium

Dysplasia: an atypical proliferation of cells

Granuloma: inflammation characterized by accumulations of Mfs wwhich combine into giant cells.

Hyperplasia: proliferation of cells which is not neoplastic

Metaplasia: one type of cell is replaced with another type of cell.

Well diff: how much or how little tumor tissue looks like normal tissue that it came from

Poor diff: lack structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably

Mitotic rate: measure of how fast cancer cells are dividing and growing.