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Flashcards in Tumor Markers Deck (12):
1

What are tumor markers?

What are four things they are useful for?

Do elevated levels suggest CA?

Tumor markers: glycoprotein molecules in the blood that are detected by monoclonal abys


Useful for:
-screening
-determining diagnosis and prognosis
-assessing response to therapy
-monitoring for cancer recurrence.

No necessarily, elevated levels of tumor markers dont suggest CA. They may be caused by a condition or dz other than CA. Even some people with CA never have high levels.

2

CA 15-3 & CA 27.29
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?
-what CA 27.29 becomes elevated what is it indicative of?

Most useful in Breast CA

TIssue analyzed: Blood (MUC1 gene)

How used: assess whether tx is working or dz has recurred.

Found in: colon, gastric, hepatic, lung, pancreatic, ovarian, and prostate CA.

Elevation of CA 27.29 is more indicative of metastatic dz.

3

CEA (Carcinoembryonic Ag)
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--colorectal and breast cancer

-tissue analyzed?
--blood (elevated in smokers)

-how used?
--check whether colorectal CA has spread.
*not useful in screening for colorectal CA.

-found in?
--breast, lung, gastric, thyroid, lymphoma, and melanoma

(if levels exceed 10, its usually not due to benign disease. If its over 100, there might be mets)

4

CA 19-9
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--Pancreatic*, Gallbladder, bile duct, and gastric cancer

-tissue analyzed?
--Blood (less than 37 units/ml)

-how used?
--assess if tx is working
--no value in screening

-found in?
--Colon, esophageal, hepatic cancers

(levels above 1000 units/ml predict presence of metastatic disease

5

AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein)
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--Liver and Germ cell tumors

-tissue analyzed?
--Blood (5.4ng/ml)

-how used?
--help dx liver cancer and follows response to tx
--assess stage, prognosis, and response to tx of germ cell tumors

-found in?
--gastric, biliary, and pancreatic cancers

6

Beta-HCG
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?
-also used with AFP for what tumors?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--Choriocarinoma (uterus tumor) and testicular cancer

-tissue analyzed?
--urine or blood less than 5mlU/ml)

-how used?
--assess stage, prognosis, and response to tx
--no role in screening

-found in?
--GI CA

-Also used with AFP for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors

7

CA 125
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--Ovarian CA

-tissue analyzed?
--Blood (less than 35 units/ml)

-how used?
--help dx, assessment of response to tx and evaluations
-not a good screening marker

-found in?
--endometrial, fallopian tube, breast, lung, esophageal, hepatic

(elevated most often with epithelial ovarian cancer)

8

PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
-most useful in detecting which CA?
-tissue analyzed?
-how used?
-found in?

-most useful in detecting which CA?
--Prostate CA

-tissue analyzed?
--blood, (less than 4ng/mg for screening)

-how used?
--help dx, assess response to tx, and look for recurrence
-this is the only one we have for screening**

-found in?
--Prostate

9

PSA
-When do PSA levels return to normal?
-What drugs will affect the PSA level?
-What rate of increase is predictive of cancer?

-PSA levels return to normal 6-8 weeks after sx

-Taking Finasteride (Proscar) or Dutasteride (Avodart) for 6 months will decrease PSA in half

-a velocity of 0.75ng/ml per year or doubling time is predictive of CA

10

What is the only marker used to screen for a common type of cancer?

PSA!

11

PSA
-When do you have the discussion about risk and benefits of screening in men?

-How often are levels checked post tx?

-Men ages 55-69 need discussion about risk and benefits

-Post tx levels are checked every 6 months for 5 years and then annually

12

What is proteomics?

Proteomics
-the study of protein structure, function, and patterns of expression

-a research method looking at patterns of gene expression for prognosis and response to tx