Cervical and Thoracic Spine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cervical and Thoracic Spine Deck (59)
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1

How prevalent is DDD in the cervical spine in those over 60 years old?

80% (asymptomatic)

2

At what level of the cervical spine do we see the greatest degree of axial rotation?

C1/C2 (45 degrees of the total 90)

3

At what level of the cervical spine do we see the greatest degree of lateral flexion?

Lower cervicals (35 degrees of total 40)

4

Why does the amount of axial rotation gradually decrease as we descend the cervical spine and transition into more lateral flexion?

Increased incline of cervical facets

5

Which is responsible for contributing more of the non-neural stability to the cervical spine: osseoligamentous system or musculature?

Musculature

6

Which general grow of muscles that impact the cervical spine are tightened in upper cross syndrome? Weakened?

Tightened = global/extrinsic, superficial muscles that produce movement
Weakened = local/intrinsic, deep muscles that control segments

7

What is the normal flexion to extension strength ratio seen in the cervical spine?

60%

8

Which muscles are the deep neck flexors and are responsible for posture more so than providing actual movement?

Longus capitis, longus colli, rectus capitis anterior

9

What kind of presentation do we see with patients with reduced neck strength?

Neck pain (research showed resolution when muscles are strengthened)

10

Which intrinsic muscles aid in upper cervical flexion?

Rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis

11

Which intrinsic muscles aid in lower cervical flexion?

Longus capitis, longus colli

12

Which intrinsic muscles aid in upper cervical extension?

Rectus capitis posterior major and minor, obliquus wapitis inferior and superior, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, longissimus capitis

13

Which intrinsic muscles aid in lower cervical extension?

Semispinalis cervicis, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis

14

What are the functions of the longus colli muscle?

Stiffens and stabilizes, supports curve against weight of head, counteracts buckling forces on cervical lordosis

15

Which muscles make up the global (extrinsic) cervical spine musculature?

SCM, anterior/medial scalene, upper trap, levator scap

16

What muscles are tightened in the upper cross syndrome?

Upper trap, levator snap, pectorals

17

What muscles are weakened in the upper cross syndrome?

Deep neck flexors, lower trap, serratus anterior

18

What is the presentation of cervical extension syndrome?

Rounded shoulders, anterior head carriage, head extension, elevation of shoulders, winging scapulae

19

What muscle causes the rounded shoulders seen with cervical extension syndrome?

Facilitated pecs

20

What muscle causes the anterior head carriage seen with cervical extension syndrome?

Facilitated SCM

21

What muscle causes the head extension seen with cervical extension syndrome?

Facilitated suboccipitals

22

What muscle causes the elevation of the shoulders seen with cervical extensions syndrome?

Facilitated upper trap and levator scap

23

What muscle causes the winging scapulae sometimes seen with cervical extensions syndrome?

Inhibited serratus anterior

24

Where would a patient with cervical extension syndrome experience a headache?

Suboccipital region (tight musculature)

25

What signs are indicative of a failed cervical spine flexion motor pattern when performing the test?

1 chin protrusion occurring first 2 overactive SCM 3 shaking

26

Which has more overall motion: upper or lower cervical spine?

Upper

27

The quadruped rockback involves what musculature?

Levator scap, upper trap

28

What is the purpose of the quadruped rockback?

Assess for extension

29

What is the "George Constanza Method" of spinal rehab?

Do the opposite of what you find

30

To correct for cervical extension syndrome, which general group of muscles must be engaged?

Intrinsic stabilizers