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1

common characteristics of model organisms

- Short generation time
- Production of numerous progeny
- Ability to carry out controlled genetic crosses
- Ability to be reared in a lab environment
-Availability of numerous genetic variants
-Accumulated body of knowledge about their genetic systems

2

complete set of genetic instructions for any organism

genome

3

is either RNA or DNA

genome

4

primary structure of DNA

Nucleotides

5

Secondary structure of DNA

-double helix
- hydrogen bond and base pairing
- antiparallel complementary DNA strand

6

chain of nucleotides

Nucleic acids

7

sugar + phosphate + nitrogenous base

Nucleotide

8

2 nucleotide types dependent on the sugar

RNA
DNA

9

enzyme responsible for adding and removing turns in the coil

topoisomerase

10

lightly packed chromatin, active in gene expression

Euchromatin

11

tightly coiled chromatin, inactive in gene expression

heterochromatin

12

What is heterochromatin involved in

-metabolic activity
-transcription
-cell division
-centromere
-telomere

13

proteins used to package and order DNA

Histone proteins

14

Chromosome structure

-nucleosome
- Chromatosome

15

High order chromatin structure

-30 nm fiber
-300 nm loops
- 250 nm wide fiber

16

C value

genome size

17

Key characteristics of genetic material

-must contain complex info
- must replicate faithfully
-must encode phenotype
-must have capacity to vary

18

proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were free living bacteria

endosymbiotic theory

19

Where is animal mtDNA inherited

almost exclusively from female parent

20

traits encoded by mtDNA

-petite mutations in yeast
-Neurospora mutations
-cytoplasmic male sterility

21

human diseases encoded by mtDNA

-MERRF
-LHON
-NARP
-KSS
-CEOP

22

evolution of mitochondrial DNA

-high mutation rate in vertebrate mtDNA
-# of genes & organization remains constant
-most copies of mtDNA identical

23

What is damage to mitochondrial DNA associated with?

Aging