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Flashcards in midterm Deck (25)
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1

functions of chromatin

-package DNA into more compact shape
- reinforce DNA to allow mitosis
- prevent DNA damage
- control gene expression and DNA replication

2

primary protein components of chromatin

histones

3

what cells are chromatin only found in

eukaryotic cells

4

why is reproduction in prokaryotic cells simple?

only posses 1 chromosome per cell

5

why is reproduction complex in eukaryotic cekks

multiple chromosomes must be copied and disitributed to each new cell

6

processes that serve as foundation for much of eukaryotic genetics

mitosis
meiosis

7

how many pairs of autosomal chromosomes does a normal human karyotype contain

22 pairs

8

How many sex chromosomes does a human contain

1 pair

9

What is an allosome

pair of sex chromosomes

10

what are karyotypes

number and visual appearance of chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species

11

alternative form of a gene

allele

12

fixed position on a chromosome/ genetic marker

locus

13

pair of chromosomes alike in structure & size that carry genetic info for same set of hereditary characteristics

homologous pair

14

where are chromosomes of homologous pairs inherited from

male parent and female parent

15

what are the final results of mitosis

2 diploid cells

16

what is the goal of mitosis

cell division

17

what is the final result of meiosis

4 haploid cells

18

what is the goal of meiosis

genetic shuffling and production of gametes

19

how many stages does mitosis have

5 stages

20

what are the 5 stages of mitosis

- Interphase
-Prophase
-Metaphase
-Anaphase
-Telophase

21

what happens in interphase

-cell prepares for division
- dna is duplicated creating chromosome
- cell increases in size

22

what stage is majority of the cells lifespan spent

interphase

23

what happens in metaphase

chromosomes line up along equator

24

what happens in anaphase

-sister chromatids divide completely
- microtubles get shorter

25

what happens in telophase

-nuclear envelope refroms around seperated sister chromatids
-* last step in mitosis
-2 daughter cells are formed