Flashcards in Chapter 1.8 Respiration Deck (11):
The chemical energy stored in
glucose is released by most cells
The energy released from respiration of glucose is used to
regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate.
The chemical energy stored in ATP can be released by
breaking it down to ADP and phosphate
Energy can be used for cellular activities including
muscle cell contraction, cell division, protein synthesis and transmission of nerve impulses
In respiration, glucose is broken down to produce
pyruvate in the cytoplasm of cells
When oxygen is not available
pyruvate enters reaction pathways known as fermentation
If no oxygen is available, pyruvate is converted to
lactic acid in animal cells and to ethanol and carbon dioxide in plant and yeast cells.
Breakdown of each glucose molecule via the fermentation pathway yields
two molecules of ATP
fermentation occurs in the
If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration occurs and pyruvate is further broken down into
Carbon dioxide and water within the mitochondria of cells.