Chapter 3.2 Energy in ecosystems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3.2 Energy in ecosystems Deck (19):
1

At each level in a food chain 90% of the energy that entered that level is

not available to pass to the next level.

2

The energy that is lost at each level of a food chain is mainly lost as

heat and movement

3

At each level of a food chain some energy remains stored in

undigested material

4

A diagram that represents the relative numbers of organisms at each stage of a food chain is called a

pyramid of numbers

5

A diagram that shows the relative total masses of organisms at each level of a food chain is called a

pyramid of biomass

6

A diagram that shows the relative total energy in the bodies of all organisms at each level of a food chain is called a

pyramid of energy

7

Pyramids of biomass and energy are usually similar in

shape with a broad base representing producers, reducing to a narrow apex representing carnivores

8

Pyramids of number often have a similar shape to pyramids of energy and biomass but there can be differences depending on

the individual sizes of the organisms involved in the food chain.

9

In ecosystems the element

nitrogen is cycled

10

The nitrogen cycle is dependent on

various species of bacteria

11

Decomposers are

organisms that help to convert proteins in dead organisms and the nitrogenous waste from living organisms to ammonium compounds.

12

Nitrifying bacteria convert

ammonium into nitrates which can be taken up by plants

13

Dentrifying bacteria convert

nitrates into nitrogen gas which is released to the atmosphere.

14

Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert

nitrogen gas to nitrates

15

Some species of nitrogen fixing bacteria live free in soils and some species live in

root nodules of certain plants

16

Plant and animal proteins are made up from

amino acid units which are produced using nitrogen from nitrates

17

Competition can occur if organisms struggle for the

same resources that are in short supply

18

Interspecific competition occurs if

organisms of different species compete.

19

Intraspecific competition refers to

competition between organisms of the same species.