Chapter 2 gametogenesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 gametogenesis Deck (59):
1

primitive sex cords

supporting cells plus the germ cells

2

genital ridges

areas where the gonads are going to form

3

What are the supporting cells of the female ?

follicular cells

4

what are the supporting cells of the male?

sertoli cells

5

In male gametogenesis, primordial germ cells lay dormant until when ?

puberty

6

What hormone and cells places an important role in male gametogenesis

LH and leydig cells

7

When does spermatogenesis stop ?

when the person dies

8

What hormone do the leydig cells secrete?

testosterone

9

what starts the process of spermatogensis?

secretion of testosterone by the leydig cells

10

spermiogenesis

conversion of spermatids into mature sperm

11

What four steps occur in spermiogenesis?

lose the cytoplasm, condense nucleus, neck+ tail added and acrosome added

12

maturation of the sperm occurs where ?

vagina of the female

13

at week 12 what major step happens in female gametogenesis

population of oogonia after their first meiotic prophase become dormant until puberty!

14

ovarian follicle

capsule and the follicle

15

What do the follicular cells secrete that prevent further progression of the cell cycle in female gametogenesis ?

OMI-oocyte aturation inhibitor helps arrest the process and puts the break in meiosis

16

What are the two stages of the ovarian cycle ?

follicular stage and the luteal phase

17

in 5-12 primordial follicles what happenes as a result of FSH and LH ?

the follicular cells begen to thicken to cuboidla cells and it becomes a primary follicle

18

zona pellucida

a glycoprotein coat sereted by the follicular cells and the oocyte together

19

graafian follicle

the structure that is formed that has an antrum (take up of fluid and space) when the main follicle continues to develop

20

what hormone secretes HcG

SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLAST

21

what hormone does the corpus luteum secrete

progesterone until the placenta takes over

22

malformations

occur during organogenesis in the embryonic period and result in abnormal structure

23

disruptions

result from external influence that causes alterations of completely formed structures

24

deformations

abnormal form resulting from mechanical forces (club foot is an example)

25

dysplasia

abnormal organization of cells into tissue (sacrococcgela teratome)

26

what percentage of congenital abnormalities is caused by genetic factors ?

28%

27

agenesis

absence of an organ

28

aplasia

cells to form an organ never formed

29

association

anamalies occuring together without determiend cause

30

atresia

absence of an opening or lumen

31

hyperplasia

overgrowth of an organ

32

hypoplasia

underdevelopment of an organ

33

syndrome

a group of anomalies, occurring together with a common cause

34

teratogen

subtance affecting migration, proliferation or interaction of cells; results in congenital anomalies

35

What does the G1 phase do?

monitors the environment and the cell size to make sure its appropriate for replication

36

pachytene

crossing over event (exchange of genetic material that results in unique genetic combinations

37

where do the germ cells arise from

the epiblast from primary ectoderm

38

when the primordial follicle gains a zona pellucida and has now become multilaters it is now called the_________--

primary follicle

39

What are the two layers of the vesicular follicles or graafian follicles called

theca exerna and theca interna

40

what does the theca interna become

steroid secreting cells !

41

the granulose cells of the ruptured follicle after ovulation begin to proliferate to what type of cells

luteal cells

42

what is the function of the corpus luteum

serves to maintain the uterine endometrium in a condition ready to receive an embryo

43

what is the role of the menstrual cycle ?

to produce a single female gamete each month

44

what is the cumulus oophorous

connects the oocyte to the rest of the graffian follicle

45

what does the corpus luteum become if implantation does NOT occur

corpus albicans

46

FSH

rises during first half follicular phase, peaks prior to ovulation, declines during luteal phase, functions to stimulate the development of ovarian follicles and production of estrogen

47

LH

rises during first half of follicular phase, peaks just prior to obulation, declines at luteal phase and functions to trigger ovulation and production of progesterone

48

estrogens

low at first half of follicular phse, rises during 2nd half of follicular phase and peaks before LH surge and decline sat beginning of luteal phase but then increases

49

progesterone

low during folliuclar phase, increases prior to ovulation, in prenancy levels remain high, no pregnancy means rapid decline of progesterone due to degeration of corpus luteum

50

what are the three phases of uterine progresstion

meststrual, proliferative, secreory, ischemic

51

thecal cells from the theca externa secrete

estrogen

52

trisomy 18

intellectual disability, congenital heart defects, low set ears, flextion of fingers and hands, renal abnormalities, microagnathi (small jaw) a, syndactyly, and malformations of skeletal system, three copies of trisomy 18

53

trisomy 21

down's syndrome, growth retardation, varying degrees of intellectual disability, craniofacial abnormalities, extra skin folds, flat faces, small ears, hypotonia, premature aging risk of leukemia, thyroid disease and infection three copies of 21

54

trisomy 13

intellectual disability, holoprosencelphly, heart defects, deafness, cleft lip, palate and eye defects microphthalmia(small eye), anophthalmia (missing and eye) and coloboma(hole in eye)

55

klinefelter syndrome

found only in males usually detected by amnioentesis, sterility, testicular atrophy, 47 chromosomes, XXY, barr body is also present,

56

turner syndrome

X karyotype, only monosomey compatible with life, absence of ovaries, short statur, webbed neck, lymphedema, broad chest and wise spaced nipples

57

Triple X

often undergo undiagnosed, frequently have speech problems

58

Angelman syndrome

microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 15 on the maternal chromosome, cannot speakm poor motor development and unprovoked laughter

59

prader willi syndrome

microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 15 that occurs on the paternal chromosome, hypotonia, obesity, intellectual disability, hypogonadism, and undescended testes